Florida’s Geology

Florida’s Geology - Description

The physical materials of Florida. Week of January 12. , 2015. Geology = . Geo- , Latin for . earth. . =. Why study it for Florida Ecology?. Geologic Time. Florida Broke to the surface as land 35 to 25 million years ago (. ID: 578848 Download Presentation

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Florida’s Geology

The physical materials of Florida. Week of January 12. , 2015. Geology = . Geo- , Latin for . earth. . =. Why study it for Florida Ecology?. Geologic Time. Florida Broke to the surface as land 35 to 25 million years ago (.

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Florida’s Geology




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Slide1

Florida’s Geology

The physical materials of Florida

Week of January 12

, 2015

Slide2

Geology =

Geo- , Latin for

earth.

=

Why study it for Florida Ecology?

Slide3

Geologic Time

Florida Broke to the surface as land 35 to 25 million years ago (

mya

)

The bedrock of Florida accumulated for millions of years

Slide4

Building a Foundation

Pangea = a supercontinent (~550mya) and the separation of the continents through continental drift. Florida’s limestone bedrock was attached to Africa, in a rift, then pulled apart with the North American continent.

Slide5

Evidence for Pangea

Same rocks and sediments and fossil deposits containing same species discovered on separate continents---separated by Atlantic OceanContinents appear to “fit together like puzzle pieces”

Slide6

How did Pangea break apart?

Theory of Continental Drift, 1950’s and 60’s. Earth crust made up of many “plates” The boundaries where ocean plates meet are mid-ocean ridges. New sea floor created here. Other plate boundaries responsible for volcanoes, earthquakes, mountain building

Slide7

Evidence for Continental Drift

Young sea floor (at a ridge) had little time to accumulate sedimentsRocks are older and sediment is thicker as you move away from the ridgeThe rocks of the sea floor show the earth’s magnetism at the time of their cooling = magnetic anomalies.

Slide8

Florida as Africa

Florida’s limestone bedrock was attached to Africa, in a rift, then pulled apart with the North American continent.

Florida's Movement

Slide9

Major Eras in the Natural History of Earth

1)

Paleozoic:

550-250

mya

Early Animal Life in the Oceans

Fishes Diversify

Ferns and Early plants begin to colonize land

2)

Meozoic

:

(250 to 65

mya

)

Reptiles Diversify, Age of Dinosaurs

Gymnosperm Plants = most softwoods with seeds in cones diversify

3)

Cenozoic

:(65

mya

to Present)

Mammals diversify

Flowering plants =Angiosperms,

Harwoods

Diversify

Florida Emerges as a LANDMASS

Slide10

Cenozoic Era: 65 mya to Present

Tertiary Period

Paleocene 65-53

mya

Eocene 53-34

mya

Oligocene 34-23

mya

(Florida Emerges at end here)

Miocene 23-5

mya

Pliocene 5-2

mya

Quarternary

Period

Pleistocene Epoch 2mya to 10,000 years ago

Holocene (Recent) 10,000 years ago to present

Slide11

Florida as a Landmass

Earlier shorelines determined by looking at fossils in marine deposits

Florida has changed size in the past 35 million years

High sea level/Interglacial warmer climate = island chains

Low sea level/Ice ages = twice the present landmass

Panhandle emerged ~25

mya

Last time peninsula underwater 23

mya

Slide12

Florida Platform-limestone dominated flat topped structure

3 components of Platform

Basement rock-Paleozoic & some Mesozoic

Carbonate rock- Mesozoic & Cenozoic era

Siliciclastic

sediments (mostly quartz sand)-Cenozoic era

1) and partially 2) when still part of

Gondwana

(Africa)

Slide13

Slide14

Paleocene and Miocene 65-34 mya

Slide15

Paleocene and Miocene 65-34 mya

Many fossils from this time period are found: Sea grass fossils----

Slide16

Oligocene 34-23 myaLate Oligocene 25-23 mya

FL many islands before complete emergence

Late Oligocene:

Sea level fell ~ 300 ft.

Florida Emerges ~ 24

mya

.

Gulf Trough a narrow inlet or estuary, but filling in

Fossils from this time period:

Slide17

Oligocene 34-23 mya

Insects, bats, birds, tortoise

Land Mammals

(Beaver, deer, rodent, rabbit, anteater, goat, horse, pig) like creatures

Opposum

Saber-toothed cats

Slide18

Oligocene 34-23 mya

Read and record about Oligocene

Slide19

Miocene 23-5 mya

Gulf Trough filled in

Parts of FL repeatedly submerged and exposed

Freshwater communities emerging

Diverse Animals:

Slide20

Miocene 23-5 mya

Read and record about Miocene

Slide21

Pliocene 5-2mya

Inter-glacial Period, Warm Climate

High Sea Level

North American continent is dry

FL has enough water resources to support Mammal Diversity on semi-arid savannahs and subtropical forests

Slide22

Pliocene Megafauna

Horse

Camelid

Glyptodont

Sloth

Mammoth

Mastodon

Giraffoid

Rhinoceroid

Long nosed Peccaries

Slide23

Megalonyx jeffersoni

Giant ground sloths8-10 feet, up to 800 lbsVegetarian, Foraged on trees.

Slide24

Mammuthus- Wooly Mammoth

Mammut- American Mastodon

Slide25

Pleistocene 2mya to 10,000 ybp

Many of these same animals went extinct in the late Pleistocene. Another ice age occurred, Colder climateLow sea levelA landbridge between N and S. America forms allowing for long isolated species to travel North and South. The Great American Biotic Interchange

Slide26

The Great American Biotic Interchange…During Late Pliocene/Early Pleistocene…

From South America

From North America

OpossumArmadilloFlying SquirrelVampire BatsLots of FrogsHummingbirds

Raccoon

Llama

Coral Snakes

Many Pit Vipers

Jaguar

Slide27

Formation of the Gulf Stream

Remember: Ice Age, Low Sea Level, Central America Appearing….Blocked Pacific from the AtlanticDiverted Ocean CurrentsGulf Stream created! Altered ClimateWarm air and water moving to poles, cooled to make precipitation, creating much more snow and ice. Ice caps grew and repeated Ice Ages.

Slide28

Coral Reef Formation around Florida

Gulf Stream also took away nutrients from the warm waters, making ideal conditions for coral reefs to become established. Evolution of Staghorn and Elkhorn Coral Species

Slide29

Pleistocene continues

The Bering land bridge was also exposed during these global ice ages, allowing Asian species to migrate to North America. Long-horned Bison

Slide30

Holocene Period

~20,000 years ago to PresentPeriods of warming and cooling continue on a smaller scaleHumans arrive to N. America via Bering Land BridgeMost mammal megafauna extinct, due to:

Slide31

Slide32

Southeastern U.S Coastal Plain

Florida a part of this region.

Area of sediments that spreads from the southern Appalachian

Mtns

. Piedmont to the coasts

Piedmont = a rocky skirt that surrounds mountains

Slide33

Florida: 3 layers of sediments

Sediments = loose materials deposited on the land or at the bottoms of water bodies

Fragments of rocks from land

Materials formed beneath the sea

Organic matter

Slide34

Florida’s BedrockBottom layer: Marine sediments

Build-up of ancient marine sedimentsOriginate from salts, dead organisms with shells that settle out of ocean watersFlorida’s major ones:Limestone & DolomiteCalcium carbonate and Magnesium carbonates

Slide35

Middle Layer: Clastic Sediments

Loose Clastic sedimentsFragments of rockMostly Quartz (Silicon Dioxide SiO2) and Feldspar (Aluminum Silicates AlSi#O#)From erosion of Appalachian Mtns. In form of clay, silt, sand, gravel

Slide36

Top layer: Soil=particulate material lying a lop land, which is capable of supporting plant life.

Mixture of Marine and

Clastic Sediments with Organic Materials Vary in Size of sedimentsVary in pH from Acidic to AlkalineVary in ability to retain waterXericMesicHydric

300 types of soils in Florida contribute to the diversity of our ecosystems.

Slide37

Soil Types

XericDry SoilsRain water drains rapidlyContains ample oxygen to meet plants needsMesicMoist soils that do not become waterloggedDrain well and hold oxygenHydricWet soils, may becomes waterloggedLow oxygen concentrations