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The Nervous System The Nervous System

1. Two main divisions. a. . Central Nervous System . (CNS) – consists of brain and spinal cord. b. . Peripheral Nervous System . (PNS) – includes nerves extending from . brain and . spinal . cord .

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The Nervous System The Nervous System






Presentation on theme: "The Nervous System The Nervous System"— Presentation transcript:

Slide1

The Nervous System

Slide2

The Nervous System

1. Two main divisions

a.

Central Nervous System

(CNS) – consists of brain and spinal cord

b.

Peripheral Nervous System

(PNS) – includes nerves extending from

brain and

spinal

cord

c. The CNS receives messages from the PNS, interprets them, and then sends out a response.

Slide3

Neurons

2.

Neurons

- nerve cells that transmit messages to and from the spinal cord and

brain

a.

Sensory Neurons

– carry messages FROM body TO CNS

ex. Playing games in computer lab. When light switches to green, a sensory neuron transmits a message from your eye to your brain

Slide4

Neurons

b.

Motor Neurons

– carry message TO body FROM CNS

ex. Your brain sends a signal through a motor neuron to tell your finger to click the mouse.

c

.

Interneurons

– connect neurons

Slide5

3. Structure and Functions of Neurons

1. Dendrites

– receive

information and transmit impulses toward cell

body

2.

Cell Body – large area which contains cell nucleus or power plant

3.

Axon

– transmit impulses away from cell body and toward

axon terminal

4. Axon Terminals – branched structures at the ends of neurons.

6

.

Myelin Sheath – insulating coat which covers the axon. This helps messages relay faster.

Slide6

Neuron

Slide7

The Central Nervous System

1. The

brain

a

. Helps you think, remember, reason, feel emotion,

and

coordinate muscle

movement

b

. Divided into three main parts: cerebrum, cerebellum, brain stem

Slide8

The Central Nervous System

2. The Cerebrum

a

. largest, most complex part of

brain

b

. right and left sides communicate with each other to coordinate movement

. Right

controls left side and vice versa.

c. left hemisphere is for language, reasoning, and critical thinking

d

. right hemisphere is for spatial relationships

Slide9

The Central Nervous System

3. Four lobes (parts) of the cerebrum

a. Frontal Lobe – controls voluntary movements and use of language

b. Parietal Lobe – sensory information, including feelings of heat, cold, pain, touch, and body position in space

c

. Occipital Lobe – Controls sense of sight

d

. Temporal – sense of hearing and smell

Slide10

Lobes of the Brain

Slide11

The Central Nervous System

4. The Cerebellum

a

. second largest part of brain

b

. maintains body’s posture and balance

c. coordinates complex muscle movements like serving a volleyball or playing violin

Slide12

The Central Nervous System

5. The Brain Stem

a. 3 inch long stalk of nerve cells that connect the spinal cord to the rest of the brain

Slide13

The Central Nervous System

b. five parts

c. Medulla Oblongata – regulates heartbeat, breathing rate

d. Pons – regulates breathing and controls muscles of eye and face.

e. Midbrain – controls pupil size and reflexive response of turning your head

f. Thalamus – relays incoming information from the eyes, ears, and pressure receptors in skin

g. Hypothalamus – regulates body temp, appetite, sleep

Slide14

The Peripheral System

1. Broken into two parts

a. Autonomic Nervous System – controls involuntary functions such as digestion and heart rate

- you cannot control this; it is automatic! (autonomic

)

b

. Somatic Nervous System – voluntary responses that are

under

your control

feeling

and itch on your skin and scratching it

Slide15

The Peripheral System

2. Autonomic Nervous System

a

. Broken down into two smaller networks

b. Sympathetic nervous system – kicks in when you are startled. Messages are sent that increase your heart rate. Also, blood vessels dilate to allow for greater blood flow.

-

“Fight or flight response”

-

Example… you are riding in a car and a deer jumps

out

in front of you. Think about how you feel. Your

body prepares

you to make a sudden reaction.

Slide16

The Peripheral System

c. Parasympathetic nervous system – opposite of sympathetic nervous system

- slows heartbeat, relaxes blood vessels, lowers blood pressure

Slide17

Problems of the Nervous System

1. Headaches – caused by muscle tension, eyestrain, sinus infection, dehydration, or food allergies

2. Head injuries

a

. concussion – a temporary loss of consciousness

b

. contusion – bruising of brain tissue that causes swelling

Slide18

Problems of the Nervous System

3. Spinal Injuries

a. swelling of spinal cord tissue can result in temporary loss of nerve function

b

. if spinal cord is severed, you may become paralyzed.

Slide19

Problems of the Nervous System

4. Meningitis – inflammation of the spinal and cranial meninges caused by a virus or bacteria

a. symptoms include fever, headache, light and sound sensitivity, and neck stiffness.

b. can result in death

Slide20

How to care for/prevent these problems:

1. Eat a well-balanced diet, exercise regularly, get lots of sleep!

2. Wear protective devices – helmet, seat belt

3. Stay away from drugs and alcohol!!!

Slide21

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