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School Readiness Skill Buildingfrom an OT perspective
Paola Azzuolo OT Reg(Ont.)All Kids Can Flywww.allkidscanfly.caPaola.email@example.comSlide2
What skills are required to be school ready?
Good Hand SkillsUpper Extremity Control Grasp Patterns Bilateral Hand Skills Visual Motor Control Activities of Daily living.Self-Regulation
Hand Developmental Milestones
Development of arches in the handDevelopment of wrist extension.Development of an awareness of the skilled side of the hand.. Development of an open web space.
Upper Extremity Control
This control comes from the ability to move your arm with precision as well as the ability to vary the strength or force of movement. Factors that contribute to upper extremity control are shoulder, forearm, wrist strength, and good body in space awareness.
Grasp Pattern Development
Fisted grasp: The pencil is held in a fisted hand with the point of the pencil on the fifth finger side of the hand. Child’s wrist is slightly flexed and forearm supinated. This is typical of children ages 1-1.5 years.
The pencil is held with the all fingers and thumb with tip in thumb and index. This is typical of children ages 2 to 3 years.
Static Tripod Grasp :
Grasp with tip of pencil in the thumb, index and middle fingers, movement comes from arm and shoulder. This is typical of children ages 3-4 years.
Dynamic Tripod Grasp:
Grasp with tip of pencil in the thumb, index and middle fingers, movement comes from fingers while pinky side of hand rests on table. This is typical of children ages 4.5-6 years.
Inefficient Grasp Patterns
Five finger grasp: The pencil is held with the tips of all five fingers. The movement when writing is primarily on the fifth finger side of the hand. Thumb tuck grasp: The pencil is held in a tripod or Quadripod grasp but with the thumb tucked under the index finger. .
Inefficient Grasp Patterns
Thumb wrap grasp: The pencil is held in a tripod or Quadripod grasp but with the thumb wrapped over the index finger. Tripod grasp with closed web space: The pencil is held with the tip of the thumb and index finger and rests against the side of the third finger. The thumb is rotated toward the pencil, closing the web space.
Inefficient Grasp Patterns
Finger wrap: The index and third fingers wrap around the pencil. The thumb web space is completely closed. Flexed wrist or hooked wrist: The pencil can be held in a variety of grasps with the wrist flexed or bent. This is more typically seen with left-hand writers but is also present in some right-hand writers.
Examples of Pencil Grasp
Bilateral Hand Skills
Refers to the ability to use your hands together to accomplish a task. For example, when drawing, the pencil is held in the dominant hand & the non-dominant hand is preventing the paper from moving. Another example is when using scissors, the lead hand is operating the scissors & the assist hand is holding & turning the paper when cutting around a corner.
Age Expectations for Scissor Skills
2-3 years: often holds scissors with two hands to open and closeBegins to open and close the scissors with a mature graspLearns to snip paper; there is no forward movement of the scissorsMay be able to use “helping hand” to hold paper and bring into scissors
Age Expectations for Scissor skills
3-4 years:Cuts on straight lines with some accuracyCuts on curved lines and around corners, but without accuracyBegins to turn the paper with “helping hand”4-5 years:Can cut fairly accurately along curved lines and around shapesTurns the paper fairly effectively with “helping hand” to stay on the line
Visual Motor Control
Refers to the ability to coordinate eyes, arms & hands. Contributes to one’s ability to learn new shapes, cutting, drawing and writing
Age Expectations for Visual Motor Skill Development
One year old: scribblesTwo year old: imitates vertical lines, horizontal lines, paintsThree year old: copies circles, imitates oblique linesFour year old: Draws a person with 3 body parts, copies a crossFive year old: Copies a triangle, draws a person
Activities to improve Visual Motor Integration
Salt trayClay tray: use gold tees to draw Shaving creamPopsicle sticksPegboard or Lite BriteString colored beads with a patternSidewalk chalkLacingColoringOrigamiFlashlight tagPlay catch with various balls
Activities to Promote Hand Skill Development
Squirt bottles, turkey basters, eye dropper activities Bead stringing/lacingPouring Practice opening different lids Spin tops or play with wind-up toysVarious small writing tools (chalk, pastel)Pop Bubble Wrap Play dough/Silly puttyUse of various tongsTearing paper or crumpling paper into ballsHandful of pennies into slots
Activities to Promote Handwriting Development
Painting, chalk, coloring,Drawing people or homes or animalsBuilding letters with straws or popsicle sticksLearn upper case letter formation before learning lower case. Use small writing toolsEncourage top to bottom formation for vertical lines; left to right formation for horizontal lines (unless left-handed); and counterclockwise rotation for O, C, Q, G (unless left-handed). Recommend Handwriting Without Tears (www.hwtears.com) program for learning letter formation.
Look Out For: Tables that are too high/too lowThe students legs dangling from the chair without support under their feet What Can You Do: Place the child’s feet on a couple of phone directories or a small stoolRaise the height of the chair or the table 90-90-90 rule
One year old:Removes socksPuts on and takes off hatAssists with dressingTwo years old:Removes shoesPulls down pantsAssists with undressing and dressing
Dressing skills (continued)
Three Years:Can button large front buttons and zip and unzip a jacket if the shank is already connected.Four years:Able to insert the shank together to zip up a jacket with practiceFive years:Able to dress independently depending on how much practice he has had
How to promote dressing skills
Use backward chaining approachhttps://www.canchild.ca/en/canchildresources/resources/chaining.pdfVisual schedules can be useful for someBest to encourage parents to work on such skills at bath time (for undressing) or during weekends as it needs not to be rushed.
Is a critical competency that underlies the mindful, intentional, and thoughtful behaviors of younger and older children alike.Self-regulation or Executive function refers to the capacity to control one’s impulses whether it be to stop a behavior or to start, if needed.Self-Regulation is not obedience or compliance
Development of Self-regulation skills
Self-regulated children can delay gratification, suppress impulses long enough to think ahead to the consequences of their actions and to consider alternatives actionsNot limited to the social-emotional domainAlso applies to the cognitive behaviors such as remembering or paying attention.Self-regulation is ranked as the most important competency for school readiness
How to promote it?
Eliminate waiting in line with nothing to do, wandering around the classroom during center time, being unclear about what to do during an activity, and not being able to get help.Rather, create a consistent classroom in which expectations are clear and fairly enforced and where children are engaged in meaningful activities at all times.
Mature, intentional make-believe play is foundational for self-regulation development in preschoolAll play is NOT created equalMake-believe play provides the three types of interactions which lead to self-regulation:Regulation by othersRegulation of othersSelf-regulation
Do you have any questions?
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