The May Fourth Movement PowerPoint Presentation, PPT - DocSlides

The May Fourth Movement PowerPoint Presentation, PPT - DocSlides

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HI 168: Lecture 6. Dr. Howard Chiang. Warlords: 1916-1928. Warlord. (. chun-fa. , . 軍閥. ): one who commanded a personal army, controlled or sought to control territory, and acted more or less independently. ID: 440754

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Slide1

The May Fourth Movement

HI 168: Lecture 6Dr. Howard Chiang

Slide2

Warlords: 1916-1928

Warlord

(

chun-fa

,

軍閥

): one who commanded a personal army, controlled or sought to control territory, and acted more or less independently

- ‘regional militarist’ maybe more neutral

Warlord era (1916-28): a period

when

the country was divided among regional military cliques whose leaders had evolved from the generals who were trained in the New Army by

Yuan

1917: last attempt to restore the monarchy by Zhang

Xun

(

張勳

) –

Puyi

then expelled in 1924

Puyi

lived in the Japanese concession in Tianjin until 1932, when he was installed by the Japanese as ruler of Manchukuo (officially crowned as emperor in 1934)

Slide3

Zhang

Xun

Slide4

Warlords: 1916-1928

North:

- Anhui Hegemony (

1916-1920):

Duan

Qirui

-

Zhili

Hegemony (

1920-1924):

Feng

Guozhang

-

Fengtian

Hegemony (

1924-1928): Zhang

Zuolin

South:

- Constitutional Protection (1917-1922): Sun in exile

- Reorganization (1923-1925): Sun returned to power

- Northern Expedition (1926-1928): Chiang Kai-shek

-

Southern provinces - Yunnan, Sichuan,

Guizhou

, Hunan, Guangxi, and Guangdong (including Hainan

)

Note: Western nations supplied ammunition and guns to warlords

Slide5

Major Warlord Coalitions

Slide6

New Culture Movement

Intellectuals turned against Yuan

Shikai

after 1915

Revolutionaries joined Liang

Qichao

– renunciation of politics

Chinese culture – a symptom of deeper morbidity

- esp.

Confucianism

, which

survived

the fall of the dynasty

and

was being transmitted in

every

family

Late 1910s: political change should wait for cultural change – ‘culture’ (

wenhua

,

文化

) meant ‘transformation by civilized patterns’ in classical

May Fourth = New Culture + Politics

New

Culture Movement: the rejection of traditional culture and attempts to define a new cultural base and direction

Slide7

New Youth

(1915)

Chen

Duxiu

(

陳獨秀

), ‘Call to Youth’:

The

Chinese compliment others by saying, ‘He acts like an old man while still young’. Englishmen and Americans encourage one another by saying, ‘Keep young while growing old’. Such is one respect in which the different ways of thought of the East and West are manifested. Youth is like early spring, like the rising sun, like trees and grass in bud, like a newly sharpened blade. It is the most valuable period of life. The function of youth in society is the same as that of a fresh and vital cell in a human body. In the processes of metabolism, the old and rotten are increasingly eliminated to be replaced by the fresh and living

.”

Slide8

Chen

Duxiu

- China needed Mr. Science

& Mr. Democracy

Slide9

Language and Education

Language reform: from classical to vernacular (

baihua

,

白話

)

Chinese

- one of its strongest proponents was Hu Shih (

胡適

):

A dead language can never produce a living literature; if a living literature is to be produced, there must be a living tool….We must first of all elevate this [vernacular] tool….Only with a new tool can we talk about such other aspects as new ideas and new

spirit.’

1921: Ministry of Education endorsed vernacular form

Beijing University (

Beida

,

北京大學

)

- 1898 Imperial University; 1912 National U of Beijing

- 1916:

Cai

Yuanpei

(

蔡元培

)

appointed president

Tertiary institutions in BJ: 10 in 1909 to 40 in 1922

Slide10

Hu Shih

Slide11

Cai

Yuanpei

(President of Beida)

Slide12

Japan and the Shandong Issue

1914: Japan took Qingdao from Germany

1915: Japan presented Yuan ‘

Twenty-One Demands

- Yuan accepted on May 7 – National Humiliation Day

- spring – wave of anti-Japanese riots and protests

1917 China gave up neutrality in WWI

- China sent 100,000 workers to northern France

- Chinese were entitled to participate in the 1919 Versailles Conference

- Chinese delegation shared Woodrow Wilson’s ‘self-determination’ principle

- the Chinese wanted to recover Shandong

But Japan, after 1914, signed secret treaties with Russia, Britain, France, Italy, and the United States

Slide13

Japan and the Shandong Issue

Outsiders continued to decide China’s future with no consultation with Chinese

leaders

1918

– Chinese leaders

on their own volition signed a secret treaty with the Japanese

- In exchange for a 20 million yen loan, the Beijing government gave Japan rights in Shandong: to build two railroads, to station troops there, and to train and oversee Chinese train

guards

May Fourth

Incident

vs.

Movement

vs.

Era

- incident: student demonstration in Beijing on May 4, 1919, in protest against

the

Versailles

Treaty

- movement: strikes and boycotts that followed

-

era: revitalization of public sphere in early 1920s

Slide14

Gate of Heavenly Peace (Tiananmen), 1919

Slide15

Cao

Rulin

Slide16

May Fourth Movement: 1919-21

May 4, 1919: Beijing’s Gate of Heavenly Peace (

Tiananmen

,

天安

)

Students marched on to the house of Cao

Rulin

(

曹汝霖

)

- cabinet member, Qing official, aide to Yuan

Shikai

- students found Zhang

Zongxiang

(

章宗祥

) instead

- Martial Law was declared around the Legation Quarter

the arrests of students also turned May Fourth into a spark -

the

arrested students attracted support from a wide range of Beijing’s citizens, and protests spread to all major

cities

Student organizations – reached women, high school students, principles, other professionals, & workers

Slide17

May Fourth Movement: 1919-21

the movement shifted to anti-Japanese

actions

- burning & boycotting Japanese goods

- further involvement of merchants & workers

- government received diplomatic pressure from Japan

- by June

, Shanghai replaced Beijing as the main focus of the May Fourth

movement

In France – the Versailles Treaty was thus concluded on June 28 without official Chinese endorsement

1922:

dispute over Shandong was eventually mediated by the

US at the

Washington Naval Conference

- Shandong was agreed to be returned to China on February 4

Slide18

Japanese Delegation at Paris Peace

Conference in 1919

Slide19

Political Significance of May 4th

Street Politics & Students

- students’ claims to be acting selflessly were critical to their

legitimacy

- even Chinese who disagreed might admire them

- precedents: student-merchant boycott in 1905; popular protests against Twenty-One Demands in 1915; anti-Manchu movement since 1900; legacy of reformist intellectuals such as Kang

Youwei

Unprecedented quantitatively and qualitatively

-

led

to a new basis for political

activity

- created a multi-class political agenda based on anti-imperialism and opposition to venal Chinese administrations

Slide20

Political Significance of May 4th

set the pattern for future protests

as it

trained future

leaders

- brought thousands of people to treat policy questions as personally

important

- long-term approaches – independent political party

- political professionalization: new Party member

Gender – women’s rights

- only in the wake of the spread of educational and employment opportunities did women begin to emerge as a major social force in their own right

- much remained dominated by the voices of

men

- Ding Ling’s

Miss Sophia’s Diary

(1927) next week

Slide21

Ding Ling

(

丁玲

)


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