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Dynamic Networks Xiang Zuo Dissertation Defense March ID: 565413 Download Presentation

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indirect ties cheating social ties indirect social cheating tie link friend influence zuo network strength power diffusion xiang information iamnitchi adriana players

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Slide1

The Role of Social Ties in Dynamic Networks

Xiang Zuo Dissertation Defense March 16, 2016

Prof. Adriana Iamnitchi (advisor) Prof. Kingsley A. Reeves, Jr.Prof. John Skvoretz

Committee:

Prof.

Mingyang

Li (chair)

Prof. Yao Liu

Prof.

Yicheng

Tu

Slide2

Social Ties

Social Ties are connections among people for sharing information, feelings, and experiences.2Slide3

Network Dynamics

3

The network topology changes over times

Information/behavior spreads in networks

http

://not-

ionic.tumblr.com

/Slide4

Outline

4

Background & Motivation

Indirect Ties

M

easurement

The Power of

I

ndirect

T

ies

Timing of link formation

Indirect ties and information diffusion

paths

Indirect ties improves performance of Friend-to-Friend systems

Quantifying Cheating

I

nfluence

Cheating is a complex

contagion

Factors that influence cheating

SummarySlide5

Prior Work

5

Social tiesProperties: Strong and weak ties [Granovetter ’73], Homophily [Mcpherson et al. ’01],

Triadic closure [

Rapoport ‘53]

.

Measurements

:

Katz

[Katz ‘53]

,

Jaccard

coefficient

[Salton et al.

83]

,

Neighborhood overlap

[Newman ’01], Adamic Adar

[Adamic et al.’03], Tie strength measurements

[Gilbert et al.’09]

.

Network dynamicsNetwork structure: communities growths and changes

[Backstrom et al. ‘06], group stability

[Patil et al. ‘13], shrinking diameter phenomenon [

Leskovec et al. ‘05, kumar et al. ‘10].

Diffusion/Contagion: most diffusions are small and shallow [Newman et al. ‘06], Hubs are firewalls to diffusion

[Watts et al. ’02, Centola et al. ‘07]

, Simple vs. Complex contagions

[

Centola

et al. ‘07]

, Complex contagions exhibit diverse diffusion

patterns

[

Centola

et al.

07, Romero et al. ‘11]

.

We know much less about social ties and network dynamics, especially indirect ties and the contagion of negative behavior.Slide6

My Research Contributions

6

Indirect tie measurementDevelop an indirect tie measurementThree advantages over state-of-art metricsIndirect tie in network dynamicsDefine two metrics to measure the relationships between link delays and tie strength.Predict information diffusion pathsContagion of cheating behavior

Empirically reveal that interaction network serves as a channel for cheating contagion.

Quantify factors that influence cheating with large real-world datasets.Slide7

Outline

7

Background & Motivation

Indirect Ties Measurement

The Power of Indirect

T

ies

Timing of link formation

Indirect ties and information diffusion

paths

Indirect ties improves performance of Friend-to-Friend systems

Quantifying Cheating

I

nfluence

Cheating is a complex

contagion

Factors that influence cheating

SummarySlide8

What

Is an Indirect Tie?An indirect tie is a relationship between two individuals who have no direct relation but are connected through other individual(s).

8Slide9

Why Study Indirect Ties?

9

Indirect ties are known to be a strong force shaping the

network.

L

ack

quantitative studies of the influence of indirect

ties in network dynamics,

especially for social distances longer than 2 hops.Slide10

Observations from Sociology

10

The strength

of a direct tie is related to the amount of interactions

.Multiple

types of interactions result in a

stronger

relationship than only with one type.

The strength of an indirect tie

decreases

with the length of the shortest path between the two

individuals.

SS

n

(A, B)

SS

n(B, A).Slide11

Social Strength Metric

11

Example0.330.600.80

0.67

Zuo, The Power of Indirect Ties in Friend-to-Friend storage systems, P2P’14. Slide12

Evaluation: Using Indirect Ties for Link Prediction

12

Can we use a 2(3)-hop indirect tie between nodes that are not directly connected to predict whether a link will form between them?Zuo, The Power of Indirect Ties in dynamic networks, SocInfo’14. Slide13

Indirect Tie Measurements

13

Jaccard Coefficient (J)Adamic-Adar (AA)

Katz

Social Strength (SS)Slide14

Datasets

14

NetworksNodesEdgesEdge weightsObservation TimeTeam Fortress 2 (TF2)2,4069,7201-21,767300 daysInfectious Exhibition (IE)

4102,765

1-19190 days

Team Fortress 2

(TF2

)

is an online gaming

network.

Infectious Exhibition

(IE) is a face-to-face interaction network collected from a 3-month science gallery in Ireland

Slide15

Link Prediction Results

15

ClassifiernNetworkMetricPrecisionAUCDecision Tree2 TF2Social Strength0.75±0.010.77±0.09Adamic Adar 0.71±0.040.71±0.06

Jaccard

0.51±0.07

0.51±0.08

Katz

0.69±0.01

0.68±0.05

IE

Social

Strength

0.84±0.01

0.87±0.01

Adamic

Adar

0.69±0.02

0.70±0.03

J

accard

0.69±0.07

0.68±0.04

Katz

0.66±0.030.65±0.01

3 TF2

Social Strength0.63±0.020.64±0.03

Katz

0.52±0.07

0.54±0.03

IE

Social

Strength

0.65±0.01

0.66±0.01

Katz

0.62±0.05

0.62±0.07

Social strength can measure strength of indirect ties. Slide16

Outline

16

Background & Motivation

Indirect Ties

M

easurement

The Power of Indirect

T

ies

Timing of link formation

Indirect ties and information diffusion

paths

Indirect ties improves performance of Friend-to-Friend systems

Quantifying Cheating

I

nfluence

Cheating is a complex

contagion

Factors that influence cheating

SummarySlide17

Timing of Link Formation

Link formation delay: the interval between the time when the link formation conditions are met and the time when the link forms.

17Is there any connection between the strength of an indirect tie and the delay of link formation? Zuo, The Power of Indirect Ties in dynamic networks, SocInfo’14. Slide18

Link Formation Delay Definition

18Slide19

Tie Classification

19

Classify indirect ties into strong and weak with three criteria:Slide20

Tie Strength vs. Link Delay

20

33% (strong) vs. 7% (weak)Strong indirect ties form direct links quicker both in 2 and 3 hops. Slide21

Outline

21

Background & Motivation

Indirect Ties

M

easurement

The Power of Indirect

T

ies

Timing of link formation

Indirect ties and information diffusion

paths

Indirect ties improves performance of Friend-to-Friend systems

Quantifying Cheating

I

nfluence

Cheating is a complex

contagion

Factors that influence cheating

SummarySlide22

Concerns of Cheating in Real Life

22

The factors that influence cheating remained untested outside of controlled laboratory experiments and small, survey-based studies.Slide23

Cheating in Online Games

23Slide24

Why Study Cheating in Online Games?

24

Cheating is widespread in online games [Pritchard ’00]. In-game behavior closely mirrors real-world social behavior [Szell et al. ‘10].

Ties are supported by real gaming interactions [Blackburn et al.‘13].Slide25

Our GoalsUnderstand what

factors inherently affect contagion of cheating behavior based on sociological and psychological theories.Observing unpunished cheaters In-group vs. out-group influence Social status influences cheatingAwareness of repercussions Neighborhood Structure

25Zuo, Bad Apples Spoil the Fun: Quantifying Cheating in Online Gaming, ICWSM’16. Slide26

DatasetsSteam and Steam Community

Provides the Valve Anti-Cheat (VAC) service> 1.5 million accounts were banned, by 2014 GameMeIntegrates Steam player profilesProvides real-time statistics of players and game servers

26Slide27

Friendship and Co-match Graphs

Friendship graph Players are nodes; edges represent their declared friendship on Steam profilesCo-Match graph Players are nodes; edges represent two players that played in at least one match27

GraphNodesEdges# CheatersObservation Time (days)Friendship3,148,28944,725,277223,527 (7.1%)2,511Co-match167,4321,130,5952,359 (1.4%)32Slide28

MethodologyThe influence of timing condition

Compensates for missing cheating timeTA ± ω < TB (ω = 0, 1, 3, 7, 14, 21 days)28

ABTATB<±ωSlide29

Factor I: Observing Unpunished Cheaters Aggravates Cheating HypothesisObserving unpunished cheaters in action increases the likelihood of cheating.

In-lab experimental supportGino et al. [Gino, Ayal, and Ariely’09] in-lab, controlled experiments.AssumptionsA player cheats in all matches played before he is VAC-banned.All players with whom the cheater played before being VAC-banned noticed he was cheating and not punished.We consider all players who get VAC-banned in an interval that satisfies the influence timing condition were influenced by him.

29Slide30

Factor I: Results

30Slide31

Factor II: In-group vs. Out-group Influence

HypothesisPeople are influenced by members of their groups more than by out-group members. In-lab experimental supportGino et al. [Gino, Ayal, and Ariely’09] in-lab, controlled experiments.AssumptionIn-group members are players in the same team while out-group members are players in different teams.

31Slide32

Factor II: Results

32Slide33

Factor III: Social Status Influences Cheating Hypothesis

Social status influences the decision to cheat.Theory Upper-status individuals are more likely to engage in unethical behavior [Piff et al. ’09].AssumptionSteam level is an indicator of a player’s social status in the gaming world.33Slide34

Factor III: Results

34Slide35

Outline35

Background & Motivation

Indirect Ties

M

easurement

The Power of Indirect

T

ies

Timing of link formation

Indirect ties and information diffusion

paths

Indirect ties improves performance of Friend-to-Friend systems

Quantifying Cheating

I

nfluence

Cheating is a complex

contagion

Factors that influence cheating

SummarySlide36

Summary

Developed new methods of tie measurement based on sociology observationsTreat ties as asymmetric in strength;More accurate tie strength measurement;Quantify indirect tie strength at any social distance. Enabled novel applications in social computingIndirect ties infer timing of link formation; Indirect ties predict information diffusion;Improve data availability in Friend-to-Friend systems.Combined the power of computing, technology and big data to answer fundamental questions in social science

Cheating spreads in interaction-based networks;Tested several factors that motivate cheating at scale.36Slide37

Publications Xiang Zuo, Clayton Gandy, John Skvoretz, Adriana

Iamnitchi. “Bad Apples Spoil the Fun: Quantifying Cheating Influence in Online Gaming ”, Proceedings of 10th International AAAI Conference on Web and Social Media (ICWSM), Cologne, Germany, May 2016 (acceptance rate: 17%).Xiang Zuo, Jeremy Blackburn, Nicolas Kourtellis, John Skvoretz, Adriana Iamnitchi. “The Power of Indirect Ties”, Journal of Computer Communications, 2016.Xiang Zuo, Jeremy Blackburn, Nicolas Kourtellis, John Skvoretz, Adriana Iamnitchi. “The Influence of Indirect Ties on Social Network Dynamics”, International Conference on Social Informatics, Spain, 2014.Xiang Zuo, Jeremy Blackburn, Nicolas Kourtellis, John Skvoretz, Adriana Iamnitchi. “The Power of Indirect Ties in Friend-to-Friends Systems”, IEEE International Conference on Peer-to-Peer Computing, London, 2014.

37Slide38

Other Publications Xiang Zuo, Adriana Iamnitchi

. “A Survey of Socially Aware Peer-to-Peer Systems”, ACM Computing Surveys, 2016.Imrul Kayes, Xiang Zuo, Da Wang, Jacob Chakareski. “To Blog or Not to Blog: Characterizing and Predicting Retention in Community Blogs”, Proceedings of 7th ACM/ASE International Conference on Social Computing (SocialCom), China, 2014.Xiang Zuo, Alvin Chin, Xiaoguang Fan, Bin Xu, Dezhi Hong, Ying Wang, Xia Wang. “Connecting People at a Conference: A Study of Influence between Offline and Online Using a Mobile Social Application”, IEEE International Conference on Cyber, Physical and Social Computing (CPSCOM), 2012.Jeremy Blackburn, Ramanuja Simha, Nicolas Kourtellis, Xiang Zuo, Matei Ripeanu, John Skvoretz, Adriana Iamnitchi. “Branded with a Scarlet “C”: Cheaters in a Gaming Social Network ”, Proceedings of 12th International Conference on World Wide Web, (WWW), 2012.Jeremy Blackburn, Ramanuja Simha, Clayton Long, Xiang Zuo, Nicolas Kourtellis, John Skvoretz, Adriana Iamnitchi. “Branded with a Scarlet “C”: Cheaters in a Gaming Social Network ”, HPDC/SIGMETRICS 2011 Student Posters (Best Student Poster Award).

38Slide39

Q & A

39

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