1 Concept of Same
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1 Concept of Same

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1 Concept of Same




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Presentation on theme: "1 Concept of Same"— Presentation transcript:

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Concept of Same and Difference

Researcher: Jean-Remy HochmannRA: Melody Wu

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Previous Studies

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Giurfa et al. (2001)

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Giurfa et al. (2001) - continue

Paradigm: Training and transfer tests Method: Y-shaped maze

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Giurfa et al.(2001) - continue

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Result: Bees have the concept of same

and difference

!

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Mercado III et al. (2000)

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Mercado III et al. (2000) - continue

Paradigm: Training and transfer testMethod: use two paddles to represent same or difference

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Mercado III et al. (2000) - continue

Dolphin # 1: Training: 89% accuracyTransfer Test: 76% accuracyDolphin # 2: Training: 85% accuracyTransfer Test: 80% accuracyDolphins have the concept of same and difference!

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Wright and Katz (2006)

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Wright and Katz (2006) - continue

Paradigm: Training and transfer testsMethod: show a pair of same or different stimuli

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Wright and Katz (2006) - continue

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Wright and Katz (2006) - continue

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Wright and Katz (2006) - continue

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Thompson and Oden (1996)

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Human infants

Infant chimpsMonkeyspigeonsBees etc.

Human infantsInfant chimpsPigeons (256 different exemplars)Monkeys (128 different exemplars)

Monkeys

Human adults

Linguistically trained

chimps

Alex the parrot

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General problems of this literature

Symmetry interpretation is not always controlled for.Symmetry applies to the overall visual pattern.‘Same’ is a relation between two objects. Usually no different results between ‘Same’ and ‘Different’.

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Kovacs and Mehler (2009)

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Kovacs and Mehler (2009) - continue

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Kovacs and Mehler (2009) - continue

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Kovacs and Mehler (2009) - continue

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Questions

Is the concept of difference harder or impossible for infants to learn?

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What are the two requirements?

1. Mental representation of stimulus2. Association between a side of screen and each representation

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Current Study - Stage 1

Hold 1st requirement constantTest whether 14 month-old can associate a side to each representation

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Paradigm

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Goal of Stage 1

Determine at what age infants can associate each side with a representation

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What are the two requirements?

1. Mental representation of stimulus2. Association between a side on screen and each representation

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Current Study - Stage 2

Hold 2nd requirement constantTest infants’ ability to represent structure AA and AB (same vs. difference)

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Paradigm

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Predicted Result

Successful: associate AA to one side while AB to anotherInfants have concept of same and differenceUnsuccessful: only associate AA to one side but not AB to another Infants might only have the concept of sameConcept of difference might be more difficult

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Future Experiment

Effect of speech labelsEffect of auditory attention cues

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The End

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