Addressing the Needs of Students With Persistent Reading Di

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Addressing the Needs of Students With Persistent Reading Difficulties Through Intensive Intervention

Douglas Fuchs, Devin Kearns, and Laura MagnusonVanderbilt University, Boston University, and American Institutes for ResearchApril 11, 2014

This document was produced under U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs, Award No. H326Q110005. Celia Rosenquist serves as the project officer. The views expressed herein do not necessarily represent the positions or policies of the U.S. Department of Education. No official endorsement by the U.S. Department of Education of any product, commodity, service or enterprise mentioned in this document is intended or should be inferred.

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The intensive intervention framework (5 min.)Overview of Data-Based Individualization (DBI) in reading (10 min.)Critical elements of DBI in reading (25 min.)Important considerations for making DBI work (5 min.)Group discussion (15 min.)

Session Overview

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The Intensive Intervention Framework

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Intensive intervention addresses severe and persistent learning or behavior difficulties. Intensive intervention should be: Driven by data Characterized by increased intensity (e.g., smaller group, expanded time) and individualization of academic instruction and/or behavioral supports

What Is Intensive intervention?

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Secondary intervention program, delivered with greater intensityProgress monitoringInformal diagnostic assessmentAdaptationContinued progress monitoring, with adaptations occurring whenever needed to ensure adequate progress

Five DBI Steps

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A Bird’s Eye View of DBI

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Overview of DBI in Reading: Why Do We Do DBI?

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Why? Many Students With Disabilities Are Struggling in School

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U.S. elementary-age children with learning disabilities (LD) below 20th percentile on comprehension

64%

High school students with LD years below grade level in reading

3.4 years

Fraction of high school students with LD who drop out

¼

Percentage of students with LD with paid employment, two years postsecondary

46%

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“Virtually all children and youth with disabilities, including those with very serious learning problems, are helped sufficiently by the core curriculum with co-teaching, modifications to the core instructional program, or other such supports.”

Why? Unfounded and Naïve Beliefs About Teaching Kids with LD

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Fuchs, Fuchs, & Vaughn, 2014, p. 14

Unfounded and naïve belief

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Why? Primary and Secondary Prevention Often Are Not Enough

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Primary prevention

Low-salt diet Stress reduction

Secondary prevention

Intensive intervention

Inexpensive

diuretics

Beta-blockers

ACE inhibitors

Other novel, patient-specific treatments

The Medical Analogy:

High Blood Pressure Treatment

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A Case Study: Kelsey

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In fourth grade

Reads at a second-grade level

Participated in a secondary intervention using a research-validated program

Group of six 30 minutes, 4 times a week, for 7 weeksExplicit instruction Led by knowledgeable paraprofessional

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Kelsey’s Secondary Intervention Progress

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Progress monitored on a measure of passage reading fluency

Her aim/goal line

(where we want her weekly scores to be)

Her progress

(her actual scores)

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Kelsey is exactly the type of child who needs intensive intervention.Kelsey received good instruction.Kelsey needs a more intensive instructional program.

Kelsey Is Not Responding to Secondary Prevention

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Many children in intensive intervention participated in good programs.

Their problems are not anyone’s “fault.”

Some children just need

more

time structure practice clarity teacher attention

different

methods of explanation content

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After Secondary Prevention:

What Do We Do for Kelsey Now?

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Data-Based Individualization

Improving Skills for Students With Intensive Needs

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Secondary prevention with greater intensityProgress monitoringDiagnostic assessmentAdaptation of the interventionIterations5A. Progress monitoring5B. Analysis5C. Adaptation

Steps of DBI in Reading

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Danielson & Rosenquist, 2014; Lemons, Kearns, & Davidson, 2014

1

x

2

3

+

4

5

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Secondary Prevention With Greater Intensity

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Secondary prevention programNot an approach or a loosely structured set of activitiesResearch-validated program (tested by researchers)Clear sequence of lessonsExplicit instruction (I do, we do, you do) approach (Archer & Hughes, 2011)Fidelity of implementationGreater intensity (quantitative changes)Greater frequency, length of sessions, or durationSmaller group sizeLess heterogeneity in the group (students more similar in level)

Secondary Prevention With Greater Intensity

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Kelsey’s Secondary Prevention Program

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Explicit

Systematic

Research-Based

(Fuchs, Kearns et al., 2012)

Focused on Foundational Skills

Sight words

Sound-symbol correspondence

Decoding

Spelling

Reading level-appropriate texts

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Kelsey’s Progress After Secondary Prevention

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Oral reading fluency (accuracy; %)

Oral reading fluency (rate)

MAZE

Slight

improvement in oral reading fluency rate, and accuracy

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Intensifying Secondary Prevention: Quantitative Changes

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4 days

5 days

Time

4 students

3 students

Group

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Progress Monitoring

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Reliable and valid measure (evaluated by researchers)Use “Academic Progress Monitoring Tools Chart” available at intensiveintervention.org Easy-to-administer measureTakes little teacher and student timeEasy to scoreMeasure can be given weeklyEnough parallel formsDesigned for regular administration

Choose a Progress Monitoring (PM) Measure

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Determine the correct levelStudent’s instructional level Not student’s grade levelDetermine student’s aim and plot it

Collect Initial Data and Create an Aimline

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Kelsey is doing second-grade oral reading fluency Using second-grade benchmark (85) or Using second-grade expected rate of improvement (to 72)

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Collect data weeklyAfter seven weeks (8 data points), evaluate progressIs student tracking the aimline?Yes—stay on targetAbove—increase the goal or stay on targetBelow—diagnose and adapt instruction

Collect Data Through Initial DBI

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Diagnostic Assessment

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Informal Diagnostic Assessment

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Error analysis of PM data

Classroom assessments and work samples

Standardized assessments (if possible)

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Review the diagnostic assessmentsCome up with a theory about what might be causing the student’s academic difficultyStart considering adaptations

Using the Assessment Results

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bunny vu… IDK

knife twin

Spellings include all sounds

Replaces nonwords with real words

Good sight word knowledge

PM errors are mainly for polysyllabic words

spin … IDK count?

Kelsey

tends to guess

and needs strategies to

decode polysyllabic

words.

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Adaptation

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20 minutes with teacher in small group, rather than 15 minutes5 minutes of one-to-one time with teacher15 minutes of partner practice, rather than whole-group reading activities in general education

Adaptation for Kelsey:Quantitative Changes

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Adaptation for Kelsey:Qualitative Changes

Skip ahead in the scope and sequence to the polysyllabic lessons

Supplement with polysyllabic

strategies …

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Polysyllabic Strategy Options

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Peeling off

Overt strategy

Lovett, Lacarenza, &

Borden, 2000

Archer, Gleason, & Vachon, 2002

“I peel off (affix) at the beginning (or end) of the word. The root is ____. The word is ____.”

(p. 468)

“First, I will try /

first pronunciation/, then I will try /second pronunciation/, and see which gives me a real word.” (p. 469)

Vowel alert

Covert strategy

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Polysyllabic Strategy Options

DISSECT Lenz & Hughes, 1990

Discover the contextIsolate the word’s prefixSeparate the word’s suffixSay the word’s stem or base wordExamine the word’s stemCheck with another personTry to find the word in the dictionary

BESTO’Connor et al., 2002; O’Connor, Fulmer, Harty, & Bell, 2005; O’Connor & Bell, 2004

Break the word apartExamine each part Say each partTry the whole thing in context

Mnemonic strategies

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Polysyllabic Strategy Options

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Wilson, 2002

Lindamood &

Lindamood, 1998

Syllable marking

Tracking with syllables

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How to decide:Think about the principles for intensive interventionWhich strategies have small steps?Which strategies have precise language (3Cs language: clear, concise, consistent)?Which strategies lend themselves to modeling real reading behavior?ChoicesPeeling offVowel alertOvert and covert strategies

Polysyllabic Strategy Chosen

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Results of Adaptation

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Iterations

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Check Progress Weekly: Are the Adaptations Still Working?

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What should we do now?Diagnose: What is the source of the problem?Adapt: How can we change the program again to produce greater growth?

After Four Points Below the Line, Diagnose and Adapt Again

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Important Considerations for Making DBI Work

Tips From Our Work in Schools

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Make Sure You Choose a Valid and Reliable PM System

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Running records

Program-specific mastery measures

X

X

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The Instructional Platform Is a PROGRAM

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X

An adequate resource but not an instructional platform: Not systematic and explicit

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The Instructional Platform Is a PROGRAM

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X

An adequate website with actual lesson plans, but it is not a program that is tightly and carefully designed

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The Adaptations Make Sense

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Balance training

Kearns & Fuchs (2013)

Brain workouts

Working memory treatment

Neurofeedback training

X

To date, few scientific studies suggest these “cognitive” approaches work: Stick to academics

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Every other week is not enough during DBI.Weekly monitoring is needed to show small changes.

Monitor Progress Enough

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Do not forget to loop them in early in the process.Make sure the entire staff knows about DBI and basically what will happen.Include other service providers, such as speech pathologists, who may have insight and ideas.

Make Sure All Key Individuals Come to DBI Meetings

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Tools ChartsAcademic Intervention: http://www.intensiveintervention.org/chart/instructional-intervention-tools Progress Monitoring: http://www.intensiveintervention.org/chart/progress-monitoring

NCII Resources

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DBI Training Series http://www.intensiveintervention.org/content/dbi-training-series Webinars http://www.intensiveintervention.org/resources/webinarsRegister now for our April 29th webinar: “So What do I do Now? Strategies for Intensifying Intervention when Standard Approaches Don’t Work”

NCII Resources

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Group Discussion

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Archer, A. L., Gleason, M.,,& Vachon, V. (2002). REWARDS (Reading Excellence: Word Attack & Rate Development Strategies). Longmont, CO: Sopris West. Archer, A. L., & Hughes, C. A. (2011). Explicit instruction: Effective and efficient teaching. New York, NY: Guilford. Danielson, L., & Rosenquist, C. (2014). Introduction to the TEC special issue on data-based individualization. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 46, 6–12.Fuchs, D., Fuchs, L. S., & Vaughn, S. (2014). What is intensive instruction and why is it important?. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 46, 14.Lemons, C. J., Kearns, D. M., & Davidson, K. A. (2014). Data-based individualization in reading: Intensifying interventions for students with significant reading disabilities. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 46, 20–29. Lenz, B. K., & Hughes, C. A. (1990). A word identification strategy for adolescents with learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 23, 149–158, 163.Lindamood, P., & Lindamood, P. (l998). The Lindamood Phoneme Sequencing program for reading, spelling, and speech, Austin, TX: PRO-ED, Inc.Lovett, M. W., Lacerenza, L., & Borden, S. L. (2000). Putting struggling readers on the PHAST track: A program to integrate phonological and strategy-based remedial reading instruction and maximize outcomes. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 33, 458–476.O’Connor, R. E., Bell, K. M., Harty, K. R., Larkin, L. K., Sackor, S., & Zigmond, N. (2002). Teaching reading to poor readers in the intermediate grades: A comparison of text difficulty. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94, 474–485.O’Connor, R. E., & Bell, K. M. (2004). Teaching students with reading disability to read words. In A. Stone, E. Silliman, B. Ehren, & K. Apel (Eds.), Handbook of language and literacy: Development and disorders (pp. 479–496). New York, NY: Guilford Press.O’Connor, R. E., Fulmer, D., Harty, K., & Bell, K. (2005). Layers of reading intervention in kindergarten through third grade: Changes in teaching and child outcomes. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 38, 440–455.Wilson, B. (2002). The Wilson Reading System. Millbury, MA: Wilson Language Training.  

References

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This module was produced under the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs, Award No. H326Q110005. Celia Rosenquist serves as the project officer. The views expressed herein do not necessarily represent the positions or polices of the U.S. Department of Education. No official endorsement by the U.S. Department of Education of any product, commodity, service, or enterprise mentioned in this website is intended or should be inferred.

Disclaimer

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National Center on Intensive Intervention1000 Thomas Jefferson Street NWWashington, DC 20007-3835866-577-5787www.intensiveintervention.orgEmail: ncii@air.org

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