ASH Fact Sheet on young people and smoking Planned review date July Smoking Prevalence It is estimated that each year around children in the UK start smoking
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Presentation on theme: "ASH Fact Sheet on young people and smoking Planned review date July Smoking Prevalence It is estimated that each year around children in the UK start smoking"â€” Presentation transcript:
Page 1 ASH Fact Sheet on young people and smoking Planned review date: July 2015 Smoking Prevalence It is estimated that each year around 207,000 children in the UK start smoking. Among adult smokers, about two-thirds report that they took up smoking before the age of 18 and over 80% before the age of 20. The 2011 General Lifestyle Survey of adult smokers revealed that almost WZRIWKVKDGVWDUWHGVPRNLQJUHJXODUO\EHIRUHWKHDJHRI 7KHDQQXDO*RYHUQPHQWVXUYH\RIVPRNLQJDPRQJVHFRQGDU\VFKRROSXSLOVLQ(QJODQGGHQHV regular smoking as smoking at least one cigarette a week. However most pupils smoke FRQVLGHUDEO\PRUHWKDQWKLVDQGLQSXSLOVFODVVLHGDVUHJXODUVPRNHUVVPRNHGDPHDQ DYHUDJHRIFLJDUHWWHVDZHHN2FFDVLRQDOVPRNHUVFRQVXPHGRQDYHUDJHFLJDUHWWHV a week. 7KHQXPEHURIFLJDUHWWHVVPRNHGE\UHJXODUVPRNHUVKDVIDOOHQVLJQLFDQWO\VLQFH 2007. The proportion of children who have ever smoked continues to decline. In 2013, 22% of 11- \HDUROGVLQKDGVPRNHGDWOHDVWRQFHWKHORZHVWSURSRUWLRQVLQFHWKHVXUYH\ began in 1982 when 53% had tried smoking. In the past decade, the proportion of children ZKRKDGHYHUVPRNHGKDVKDOYHGIURPLQWRLQ The prevalence of regular smoking increases with age, from less than 0.5% of 11 year olds to 8% of 15-year olds. Percentage of regular smokers aged 11-15 by sex: 1982 – 2012, England Years 1982 1986 1990 1994 1998 2002 2006 2010 2011 2012 2013 Boys 11 10 Girls 11 12 11 13 12 11 10 Total 11 10 10 12 11 10 Note: 216HVWLPDWHVWKDWLQDURXQGFKLOGUHQDJHGZHUHUHJXODUVPRNHUV&, DERXWIHZHUWKDQLQ 7KHGHFOLQHLQVPRNLQJKDVEHHQPRVWPDUNHGDPRQJROGHUSXSLOV 7KHSURSRUWLRQRI\HDU ROGVZKRVPRNHGUHJXODUO\IHOOIURPLQWRLQDPRQJ\HDUROGV VPRNHGUHJXODUO\LQFRPSDUHGZLWKLQ Percentage of 15 year old regular smokers: 1982 - 2012, England Years 1982 1986 1990 1994 1998 2002 2006 2010 2011 2012 2013 Boys 18 25 19 20 10 11 10 Girls 25 27 25 30 29 11 10 Total 25 22 25 28 23 20 12 11 10 Young People and Smoking -XO\ Page 2 ASH Fact Sheet on young people and smoking Exposure to secondhand smoke ,QWZRWKLUGVRISXSLOVUHSRUWHGEHLQJH[SRVHGWRVHFRQGKDQGVPRNHZLWK H[SHULHQFLQJVHFRQGKDQGVPRNHLQRWKHUSHRSOHVKRPHVDQGLQWKHLURZQKRPH 2YHUD TXDUWHURISXSLOVH[SHULHQFHGVHFRQGKDQGVPRNHLQWKHLUIDPLO\FDUZKLOHRISXSLOV ZHUHH[SRVHGLQRWKHUSHRSOHVFDUV :KDWIDFWRUVLQXHQFHFKLOGUHQWRVWDUWVPRNLQJ" Smoking initiation is associated with a wide range of risk factors including: parental and sibling smoking, the ease of obtaining cigarettes, smoking by friends and peer group members, socio- HFRQRPLFVWDWXVH[SRVXUHWRWREDFFRPDUNHWLQJDQGGHSLFWLRQVRIVPRNLQJLQOPVWHOHYLVLRQ and other media. &KLOGUHQZKROLYHZLWKSDUHQWVRUVLEOLQJVZKRVPRNHDUHXSWRWLPHVPRUHOLNHO\WREHFRPH smokers themselves than children of non-smoking households. It is estimated that, each year, at least 23,000 young people in England and Wales start smoking by the age of 15 as a result RIH[SRVXUHWRVPRNLQJLQWKHKRPH Smoking, alcohol and drug use There is a strong association between smoking and other substance use. As in previous years, WKHVHFRQGDU\VFKRROVXUYH\IRXQGVWURQJRYHUODSVRIVXEVWDQFHXVH2IWKHRISXSLOV ZKRUHSRUWHGVPRNLQJLQWKHZHHNEHIRUHWKHVXUYH\PRVWKDGDOVRGUXQNDOFRKRORUWDNHQ drugs recently, or had done both. Other factors associated with smoking The 2012 survey found that young people who played truant from school or who had been H[FOXGHGIURPVFKRROLQWKHSUHYLRXVPRQWKVZHUHDOPRVWWZLFHDVOLNHO\WRVPRNHUHJXODUO\ FRPSDUHGWRWKRVHZKRKDGQHYHUEHHQWUXDQWRUH[FOXGHG Attitudes to smoking The proportion of pupils who think it is acceptable to try smoking has decreased since the TXHVWLRQZDVUVWDVNHGLQ&XUUHQWO\EHOLHYHLWLVDFFHSWDEOHWRWU\VPRNLQJWRVHH ZKDWLWLVOLNHFRPSDUHGZLWKLQ+RZHYHUDPXFKVPDOOHUSURSRUWLRQWKRXJKWLW ZDV2.WRWU\VPRNLQJRQFHDZHHN ,QWKHVXUYH\FKLOGUHQZHUHDVNHGIRUWKHLUYLHZVRQZK\\RXQJSHRSOHVPRNHG&KLOGUHQ ZKRZHUHQRQVPRNHUVEHOLHYHGWKHLUSHHUVVPRNHGEHFDXVHLWZDVFRROGXHWRSHHU SUHVVXUHDQGEHFDXVHWKH\ZHUHDGGLFWHG VPRNHUVVDLGWKH\VPRNHGEHFDXVHLWKHOSHGWKHPFRSHZLWKVWUHVVEHFDXVHWKH\ZHUH DGGLFWHGDQGEHFDXVHVPRNLQJJDYHWKHPDJRRGIHHOLQJ Smoking and children’s health The younger the age of uptake of smoking, the greater the harm is likely to be because early uptake is associated with subsequent heavier smoking, higher levels of dependency, a lower chance of quitting, and higher mortality. &KLOGDQGDGROHVFHQWVPRNLQJFDXVHVVHULRXVULVNVWRUHVSLUDWRU\KHDOWKERWKLQWKHVKRUWDQG ORQJWHUP&KLOGUHQZKRVPRNHDUHWZRWRVL[WLPHVPRUHVXVFHSWLEOHWRFRXJKVDQGLQFUHDVHG phlegm, wheeziness and shortness of breath than those who do not smoke. Smoking impairs lung growth and initiates premature lung function decline which may lead to an increased risk of chronic obstructive lung disease later in life. The earlier children become regular smokers and persist in the habit as adults, the greater the risk of developing lung cancer or heart disease. &KLOGUHQDUHDOVRPRUHVXVFHSWLEOHWRWKHHIIHFWVRISDVVLYHVPRNLQJ3DUHQWDOVPRNLQJLVWKH PDLQGHWHUPLQDQWRIH[SRVXUHLQQRQVPRNLQJFKLOGUHQ$OWKRXJKOHYHOVRIH[SRVXUHLQWKHKRPH Page 3 ASH Fact Sheet on young people and smoking have declined in the UK in recent years, children living in the poorest households have the KLJKHVWOHYHOVRIH[SRVXUHDVPHDVXUHGE\FRWLQLQHDPDUNHUIRUQLFRWLQH 10 %URQFKLWLVSQHXPRQLDDVWKPDDQGVXGGHQLQIDQWGHDWKV\QGURPHFRWGHDWKDUHVLJQLFDQWO\ more common in infants and children who have one or two smoking parents. For more information see the ASH Research Report: Passive smoking: the impact on childre , ASH Factsheets: Secondhand smoke in the Hom , and 6PRNLQJLQ&DU SGIV Addiction &KLOGUHQZKRH[SHULPHQWZLWKFLJDUHWWHVFDQTXLFNO\EHFRPHDGGLFWHGWRWKHQLFRWLQHLQWREDFFR &KLOGUHQPD\VKRZVLJQVRIDGGLFWLRQZLWKLQIRXUZHHNVRIVWDUWLQJWRVPRNHDQGEHIRUHWKH\ commence daily smoking. 11 2QH86VWXG\ 12 found that smoking just one cigarette in early childhood doubled the chance of a teenager becoming a regular smoker by the age of 17 and a London study suggests that smoking a single cigarette is a risk indicator for children to become regular smokers up to three years later. 13 ,QWKHVXUYH\RIVFKRROFKLOGUHQLQ(QJODQGRI\RXQJSHRSOHZKRKDYHVPRNHGIRU XQGHURQH\HDUVD\WKH\ZRXOGQGLWGLIFXOWWRVWRSIRURQHZHHNFRPSDUHGWRIRUWKRVH who have smoked more than one year. 'XULQJSHULRGVRIDEVWLQHQFH\RXQJSHRSOHH[SHULHQFH ZLWKGUDZDOV\PSWRPVVLPLODUWRWKHNLQGH[SHULHQFHGE\DGXOWVPRNHUV Smoking prevention Research suggests that knowledge about smoking is a necessary component of anti-smoking campaigns but by itself does not affect smoking rates. It may, however, result in a postponement of initiation. 15 High prices can deter children from smoking, since young people do not possess a large disposable income: studies suggest young people may be up to three to four times more price sensitive than adults. ,Q&DQDGDZKHQFLJDUHWWHSULFHVZHUHUDLVHGGUDPDWLFDOO\LQWKHVDQGWKHHDUO\V \RXWKFRQVXPSWLRQRIWREDFFRSOXPPHWHGE\ 17 An American study has shown that while SULFHGRHVQRWDSSHDUWRDIIHFWLQLWLDOH[SHULPHQWDWLRQRIVPRNLQJLWLVDQLPSRUWDQWWRROLQ reducing youth smoking once the habit has become established. 18 7KH1DWLRQDO,QVWLWXWHIRU+HDOWKDQG&DUH([FHOOHQFH1,&(KDVLVVXHGJXLGDQFHRQVFKRRO based interventions to prevent the uptake of smoking among children 19 In 2012, 31% of young SHRSOHZDQWHGWRJLYHXSVPRNLQJXSIURPLQDQGRIFKLOGUHQKDGWULHGRQHRU more forms of preventative methods. Children, smoking and the law 2Q2FWREHUWKHOHJDODJHIRUWKHSXUFKDVHRIWREDFFRLQ(QJODQGDQG: DOHVZDVUDLVHG IURPWR7KHPHDVXUHZDVGHVLJQHGWRPDNHLWPRUHGLIFXOWIRUWHHQDJHUVWRREWDLQ cigarettes, since, despite the law, children still succeeded in buying tobacco from shops and vending machines. ,QWKHUVWWLPHGDWDZHUHFROOHFWHGDIWHUWKHFKDQJHLQWKHODZ RISXSLOVZKR VPRNHGVDLGWKH\IRXQGLWGLIFXOWWREX\FLJDUHWWHVIURPVKRSVDQLQFUHDVHRIIURPLQ 20 There has also been a drop in the proportion of regular smokers who usually buy their FLJDUHWWHVIURPDVKRSIURPLQWRLQ 2WKHUPHDVXUHVGHVLJQHGWRGHWHUFKLOGUHQIURPVPRNLQJLQFOXGHDEDQRQWKHVDOHRIFLJDUHWWHV IURPYHQGLQJPDFKLQHVZKLFKHQWHUHGLQWRIRUFHLQ(QJODQGRQ2FWREHU DQGDEDQRQ the display of tobacco products in retail outlets. The latter is being introduced in two stages: from April 2012 in large shops such as supermarkets and in April 2015 in small shops. 21 Page 4 ASH Fact Sheet on young people and smoking 'XULQJWKHUHZHUHSURVHFXWLRQVLQ(QJODQGDQG:DOHVIRUXQGHUDJHWREDFFRVDOHV with 93 defendants being found guilty. 22 $QDPHQGPHQWWRWKH&ULPLQDO-XVWLFHDQG,PPLJUDWLRQ Act includes banning orders for retailers who persistently sell tobacco to persons under the age of 18. This measure came into force in April 2009. ,Q)HEUXDU\3DUOLDPHQWSDVVHGDQDPHQGPHQWWRWKH&KLOGUHQDQG)DPLOLHV%LOODOORZLQJ the Government to introduce regulations making it an offence to smoke in a private vehicle carrying children. This will only apply to England and Wales. Three other amendments were passed enabling the Government to introduce regulations: UHTXLULQJVWDQGDUGLVHGSDFNDJLQJIRUWREDFFRSURGXFWVWKURXJKRXWWKH8. PDNLQJLWDQRIIHQFHWRVHOOHFLJDUHWWHVWRFKLOGUHQXQGHU(QJODQGDQG:DOHV PDNLQJLWDQRIIHQFHIRUDQDGXOWWREX\FLJDUHWWHVIRUDQ\RQHXQGHUSUR[\ SXUFKDVLQJ(QJODQGDQG:DOHV /HJLVODWLRQDORQHLVQRWVXIFLHQWWRSUHYHQWWREDFFRVDOHVWRPLQRUV%RWKHQIRUFHPHQWDQG community policies may improve compliance by retailers but the impact on underage smoking prevalence using these approaches alone may still be small.23 Successful efforts to limit underage access to tobacco require a combination of approaches that tackle the problem comprehensively. Page 5 ASH Fact Sheet on young people and smoking References +RSNLQVRQ16/HVWHU*HRUJH$2UPLVWRQ6PLWK1&R[$$UQRWW' &KLOGXSWDNHRIVPRNLQJE\ area across the U 7KRUD[GRLWKRUD[MQO 5RELQVRQ6%XJOHU& Smoking and drinking among adult *HQHUDO/LIHVW\OH6XUYH\216 2010. 2IFHIRU1DWLRQDO6WDWLVWLFV *HQHUDO/LIHVW\OH6XUYH\2YHUYLH : A report on the 2011 General Lifestyle Survey. 2013. Smoking drinking and drug use among young people in England in 20 7KH,QIRUPDWLRQ&HQWUHIRU +HDOWKDQG6RFLDO&DUH Smoking drinking and drug use among young people in England in 201 7KH+HDOWKDQG6RFLDO&DUH ,QIRUPDWLRQ&HQWUH Passive smoking and childre 5R\DO&ROOHJHRI3K\VLFLDQV/RQGRQSGI 7 Leonardi-Bee J, Jere ML, Britton J. ([SRVXUHWRSDUHQWDODQGVLEOLQJVPRNLQJDQGWKHULVNRIVPRNLQJ uptake in childhood and adolsecence: a systematic review and meta-analysi 7KRUD[)HE GRLWK[ 6PRNLQJDQGWKH BMA Board of Science. %UHDNLQJWKHF\FOHRIFKLOGUHQVH[SRVXUHWRWREDFFRVPRN . British Medical Association, London, 2007. 10 Going smoke-free. The medical case for clean air in the home, at work and in public places A report on SDVVLYHVPRNLQJE\WKH7REDFFR$GYLVRU\*URXSRIWKH5R\DO&ROOHJHRI3K\VLFLDQV/RQGRQ5R\DO &ROOHJHRI3K\VLFLDQV 11 Di Franza JR et al. Initial symptoms of nicotine addiction in adolescent 7REDFFR&RQWURO 319. -DFNVRQ&'LFNLQVRQ' &LJDUHWWHFRQVXPSWLRQGXULQJFKLOGKRRGDQGSHUVLVWHQFHRIVPRNLQJWKURXJK adolescenc $UFK3HGLDWU$GROHVF0HG 13 Fidler, JA et al Vulnerability to smoking after trying a single cigarette can lie dormant for three years or mor 7REDFFRFRQWURO 0F1HLOO$'HWDO &LJDUHWWHZLWKGUDZDOV\PSWRPVLQDGROHVFHQWVPRNHU 3V\FKRSKDUPDFRORJ\ 15 Reid D. et. al. Reducing the prevalence of smoking in youth in Western countries: an international revie . 7REDFFR&RQWUROSGI +RSNLQV'HWDO 5HYLHZVRIHYLGHQFHUHJDUGLQJLQWHUYHQWLRQVWRUHGXFHWREDFFRXVHDQGH[SRVXUHWR environmental tobacco smok $P-3UHY0HG 6ZHDQRU'DQG0DUWLDO/57KH6PXJJOLQJRIWREDFFRSURGXFWV/HVVRQVIURP&DQDGD1RQ6PRNHUV 5LJKWV$VVRFLDWLRQ 18 Emery, S. White, M and Pierce, J. 'RHVFLJDUHWWHSULFHLQXHQFHDGROHVFHQWH[SHULPHQWDWLRQ J Health (FRQRPLFV 19 School-based interventions to prevent the uptake of smoking among childre 1,&(0DUFK 20 Smoking, drinking and drug use among young people in England in 200 7KH,QIRUPDWLRQ&HQWUHIRU +HDOWKDQG6RFLDO&DUH 21 Health Act 200 . 1XPEHURIGHIHQGDQWVFDXWLRQHGSURFHHGHGDJDLQVWDWPDJLVWUDWHV FRXUWVDQGIRXQGJXLOW\DQG sentenced at all courts for selling tobacco to underage persons, England and Wales, 2010 and 2011. Justice Statistics Analytical Services, 2013. 23 Lancaster T, Stead LF, Interventions for preventing tobacco sales to minor 7KH&RFKUDQH/LEUDU\,VVXH