ENDODONTOLOGY ENDODONTOLOGY ENDODONTOLOGY ENDODONTOLOGY ENDODONTOLOGY ELECTRONIC APEX LOCATORS  A MILLENIUM PERSPECTIVE namdar Saquib  Sureshchandra B

ENDODONTOLOGY ENDODONTOLOGY ENDODONTOLOGY ENDODONTOLOGY ENDODONTOLOGY ELECTRONIC APEX LOCATORS A MILLENIUM PERSPECTIVE namdar Saquib Sureshchandra B - Description

Senior lecturer Dept of Conservative Dentistry Endodontics Dayananda Sagar College of Dental Sciences Bangalore Principal Prof Head of the Department Dept of Conservative Dentistry Endodontics A J nstitute of Dental Sciences Mangalore INTRODUCTI ID: 36027 Download Pdf

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ENDODONTOLOGY ENDODONTOLOGY ENDODONTOLOGY ENDODONTOLOGY ENDODONTOLOGY ELECTRONIC APEX LOCATORS A MILLENIUM PERSPECTIVE namdar Saquib Sureshchandra B

Senior lecturer Dept of Conservative Dentistry Endodontics Dayananda Sagar College of Dental Sciences Bangalore Principal Prof Head of the Department Dept of Conservative Dentistry Endodontics A J nstitute of Dental Sciences Mangalore INTRODUCTI

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ENDODONTOLOGY ENDODONTOLOGY ENDODONTOLOGY ENDODONTOLOGY ENDODONTOLOGY ELECTRONIC APEX LOCATORS A MILLENIUM PERSPECTIVE namdar Saquib Sureshchandra B




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Presentation on theme: "ENDODONTOLOGY ENDODONTOLOGY ENDODONTOLOGY ENDODONTOLOGY ENDODONTOLOGY ELECTRONIC APEX LOCATORS A MILLENIUM PERSPECTIVE namdar Saquib Sureshchandra B"— Presentation transcript:


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ENDODONTOLOGY ENDODONTOLOGY ENDODONTOLOGY ENDODONTOLOGY ENDODONTOLOGY ELECTRONIC APEX LOCATORS - A MILLENIUM PERSPECTIVE namdar Saquib * Sureshchandra B. ** * Senior lecturer, Dept. of Conservative Dentistry / Endodontics, Dayananda Sagar College of Dental Sciences Bangalore ** Principal, Prof. Head of the Department Dept. of Conservative Dentistry Endodontics, A. J. *nstitute of Dental Sciences, Mangalore INTRODUCTION “ I shall be telling this with a sigh Somewhere ages and ages henceF Two roads diverged in a wood, and I I took the road less traveled by, 2nd that has made all

the difference. The oad Not Taken, 1,16, obert .rost. …. 2nd so it has been over the past century with the “pathways of the pulp”. Ideas have arisen, challenges emerged, materials developed, techniques devised, mistakes repeated, and personalities have been dominant. Tet within this timeframe and within the FIFTH GENERATION 37 A6STRACT Aim9 To evaluate accuracy of 5 th generation electronic apex locator in location of apical constriction .ethodology9 This in vivo study was carried out in teeth with a single pulp space. 1< teeth were evaluated using the Neosono-copilot 0Satelec1 Electronic 2pex

Locator 0E2L1. The file length was then measured. 2ccuracy in constriction location was assessed with conventional radiography 0 81 and radio-visio-graphy 08HC1. The paralleling technique and grid were used for standardization. 5 freshly extracted teeth were evaluated in-vitro and served as a standard for comparison. Results9 The test employed for statistical analyses was Wilcoxon Signed 8anks Test. 8HC compared with E2L pM=.;AA 0Not significant1 E2L compared with 8 pM=.1;= 0Not significant1 In maEority of the cases the E2L reading was accurate or slightly short which is necessary for quality

pulp space therapy. Conclusion9 In the present in-vivo study the accuracy of electronic apex locator was found to be optimum. This method of pulp space length estimation is found to be of great importance in cases where radiation can pose health risks. /owever a combination of methods can increase the accuracy of apical constriction location. Ceywords9 Electronic 2pex Locator, 2pical constriction, Neosono-copilot
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ENDODONTOLOGY ENDODONTOLOGY ENDODONTOLOGY ENDODONTOLOGY ENDODONTOLOGY MATE8IA9S A:D METH2D PATIE:T4S I:128MED C2:SE:T %AS@ S@&@%T.1N 3? T@@TH W@R@ %H1S@N RAND1M&M

W.TH A S.N-&@ PU&P SPA%@ PR@1P@RAT.B@ RAD.1-RAPHS PU&P B.TA&.TM T@STS TH@RMA& @&@%TR1N.% Hot %old Neosono- copilot confines of this “small and often considered insignificant tissue,” history has repeated itself, leading us to choose a variety of pathways – “Less traveled by”. Dr. James L. Cutmann 0>athways of the >ulp th edition1 Successful outcome of pulp space therapy is the prime concern of an endodontist for which one needs to restrict oneself to the confines of the apical constriction. The term constriction locators would therefore more appropriate. The Neosono-copilot is a combination of

an electronic apex locator and pulp tester and is the most recent innovation in apex location. This new generation of apex locator can measure pulp space lengths accurately even in the presence of conductive fluids. The device provides the operator with a digital read out, graphic illustration and an audible signal. The built in pulp tester can be used to access tooth vitality and determine proper and effective anesthesia. ;I %H&1RH@N.D.N@ M1UTH R.NS@ AN@STH@S.A .S1&AT.1N A%%@SS %AB.TM PR@PARAT.1N /.&@ P&A%@D AT SAM@ &@N-TH .RR.-AT.1N );.?I sodium hypochlorite) 34I @DTA gel Normal saline

solution) W1RK.N- &@N-TH @ST.MAT.1N Neosono-copilot )Wet mode5 7.6 mm. short o> the Apex) /.&@ &@N-TH M@ASUR@D )/iles used – Dentsply Mailli>er- /lexo>iles) /.&@ P&A%@D AT SAM@ &@N-TH %1NB@NT.1NA& RAD.1-RAPHS RAD.1B.S.1-RAPHS )Standardization attained using grid) A%%URA%M 1/ N@1S1N1-%1P.&1T ASS@SS@D BM STAT.ST.%A& ANA&MS.S W1RK.N- &@N-TH @ST.MAT.1N Neosono-copilot )Wet mode5 7.6 mm. short o> the Apex) /.&@ &@N-TH M@ASUR@D )/iles used – Dentsply Mailli>er- /lexo>iles) 38 ELECTRONIC APEX LOCATORS - A MILLENIUM PERSPECTIVE
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ENDODONTOLOGY ENDODONTOLOGY ENDODONTOLOGY ENDODONTOLOGY

ENDODONTOLOGY Wil4oxon ,igned Ranks Test /.&@ P&A%@D AT SAM@ &@N-TH %1NB@NT.1NA& RAD.1-RAPHS RAD.1B.S.1-RAPHS )Standardization attained using grid) A%%URA%M 1/ N@1S1N1-%1P.&1T ASS@SS@D BM STAT.ST.%A& ANA&MS.S Results Radiovisiography Conventional Radiography Wilcoxon signed ranks test RVG - EAL .862 - NS CR - EAL 1. 10 - NS GROUPRVG-EALCR-EAL EXPERIMENTALZ0.8621.510 p0.388 NS0.130 NS CONTROLZ1.4141.414 P0.1572 NS0.1572 NS WHY ELECTRONIC APEX LOCATION? ADAA+TAGES9 2ccurate Easy and Fast 8eduction of exposure to radiation >erforations can be detected an measure the pulp space exactly to the

constriction. The anatomy of the pulp space is very complex. To achieve success in endodontics, the variations in the internal anatomy should be thoroughly understood. 2 simple classification has been put forth by Vertucci to explain the various patterns which a pulp space may present. It is of immense importance to differentiate between 2N2T:)I 2L 2>EG, 2>I 2L F:82)EN and 2>I 2L :NST8I TI:N. 2n endodontist has no business beyond the constriction in conventional endodontic therapy. Apical constriction9 0)inor diameter1 Narrowest portion at the terminal end of the pulp space. It is

approximately =.5 mm. short of the apical foramen and is said to coincide with the cemento – dentinal Eunction. Apical Foramen9 0)aEor diameter1 It is the terminal end of the pulp space by which it communicates with the periapical region. 0Should not be confused with other ramifications such as 39 ELECTRONIC APEX LOCATORS - A MILLENIUM PERSPECTIVE DISCUSSION
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ENDODONTOLOGY ENDODONTOLOGY ENDODONTOLOGY ENDODONTOLOGY ENDODONTOLOGY accessory and lateral canals1 Anatomical Apex9 t is the most tapered portion of the root The outcome of this study indicates that electronic apex

locators of the newer generation can accurately measure the pulp space length to the constriction or marginally short of it. Further, the disadvantages with the older versions are eliminated and it can now be safely used irrespective of whether the pulp space is wet, dry or filled with any conductive fluids. ?each et al found that electronic apex locators caused alterations in cardiac pacemaker function. This disadvantage has also been overcome in the newer versions. 8aphael 8. Carofalo et al 17 studied the effect of five electronic apex locators on cardiac pacemaker function. /e stated that

four of them did not cause any inhibition or interference with normal pace maker function /owever to be safe, electronic gadgets should be avoided in patients with cardiac pace makers and if usage is deemed necessary a cardiologist-s consent is mandatory. >aul 2. ?runton et al 16 – studied the effect of minimization of radiation with the use of an apex locator during endodontic therapy. /e concluded that the electronic apex locator as an aid in endodontic therapy could potentially reduce the number of diagnostic radiographs required for estimation of working length. /e also recommended the

usage of electronic apex locator in combination with radiographs for accurate location of apical foramen. CONCLUSION The new era marks the beginning of a better future. Latest developments will continue in the field of endodontics. J. )orita ompany Japan recently introduced an ultrasonic pulp space preparation system the Solfy 4G. This system electronically monitors the location of the file during the entire instrumentation procedure. This minimizes the danger of over instrumentation. The Triauto 4G is a rechargeable cordless handpiece that has a contra –angle head that reduces the speed to

161=. This is used with 8oot 4G. The file is always monitored during preparation procedure. >erseverance for greater success shall never cease as newer developments continue to take place. It is indeed very true that accurate constriction location will determine the success of endodontic treatment. 2n endodontist should be updated with the very latest technology and should utilize it to his advantage in clinical practice to get the very best 40 ELECTRONIC APEX LOCATORS - A MILLENIUM PERSPECTIVE
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ENDODONTOLOGY ENDODONTOLOGY ENDODONTOLOGY ENDODONTOLOGY ENDODONTOLOGY out of what

is available to him. 2malgamation of ultimate dental care to the patient with endodontic excellence should be our goal. 3IST 1F REFERE+CES 1. Asako Oishi, Takamoto.Y,Chihiro K,Hideaki .S. “Electronic detection of root canal constrictions Journal of endodontics 2002;28(5)()61-)6, 2. Ashraf - and Keith ..K “An invitro comparison of five root canal length measuring instruments Journal of endodontics 1282;15(12)(53)-533 ). Ashraf El Ayouti;5oland 6eiger and Claus 7ost “The a8ility of root 9: Apex locator to reduce the frequency of over estimated radiographic working length Journal of endodontics

2002; 28(2)(116-112 ,. Anthony 6 and 5o8ert H “The influence of Sodium Hypochlorite Irrigation on the accuracy of the root 9: electronic apex locator Journal of endodontics 2002; 28(8)(525-528 5. Beach et al “Effect of electronic apex locators on cardiac pace makers function Journal of endodontics 1226;22(,)(182-18, 6. Chunn C.B., 9ardiackas 7.A. and Benke5.A. “In-vivo root canal length determination using the forameter Journal of endodontics 1281;11(3)(515-520 3. -ernando C, Anna C. Susana B and Datalia D “In-vitro measurement accuracy of an electronic apex locator in teeth with simulated

apical root resorption. Journal of endodontics 2002;28(6)(,61-,6) 8. Horner K, Shearer A.C., 6alker A and 6ilson D.H.-. “5adio-visio-graphy( An initial evaluation British dental Eournal 1220,Brach(2,)(2,5-2,8 2. James A, Dahmias Y. and Cerstein H “A model for demonstrating an electronic canal length measuring device Journal of endodontics 128);2(12)(568-562 10.Jesse F.-. and Bonroe B. “The effect of instrumentation on root canal length as measured with an electronic device Journal of endodontics 128);2())(11,-115 11.7oGano A., -orner 7. and 7lena C. “In-vitro comparison of root canal

measurements with conventional and digital radiology International endodontic Journal 2002; )5(5,2-550 12.Bente J., Seidel J., Buchalla and Koch B.J “Electronic determination of root canal length in primary teeth with and without root resorption International endodontic Journal 2002; )5(,,3-,52 1).Bouyen -rancis, Christoph BenG, E8erhards and Jean p.7. “Fresentation and physical evaluation of radio-visio- graphy Oral Surg. Oral Bed Oral Fathol. 1282; 68(2)8-2,2 1,.Dahmias Yousef, Aurelio J.A. and Cerstein H. “An in-vitro model for evaluation of electronic root canal measuring devices Journal

of endodontics 1283; 1)(5)( 202-21, 15.Do8oru Inoue and Skinner A.H. “A simple and accurate way of measuring root canal length Journal of endodontics 1285; 11(10)( ,21-,23 16.Faul A. Brunton, Ailshan A and Tatiana ..B. “The effect of an apex locator on exposure to radiation during endodontic therapy Journal of endodontics 2002; 28(3)( 52,-526 13.5aphael 5.C., Elias D.E., Samuel O.A. and Sergio K. “Effect of electronic apex locators on cardiac pace maker function Journal of endodontics 2002; 28(12)( 8)1-8)) 18.Seung J.7., Chang D., Yung-Joo K. and Aeok 6.K. “Clinical accuracy of a new apex

locator with an automatic compensation circuit Journal of endodontics 2002; 28(10)( 306-302 12.Shearer A.C., Horner K. and 6ilson D.H.-. “5adio-visio-graphy for imaging root canals. An in-vitro comparison with concventional radiography Huintessence International 1220; 21(10) (382-32, 20.Shearer A.C., Horner K. and 6ilson D.H.-. “5adio-visio-graphy for length estimation in root canal treatment( An in-vitro comparison with conventional radiography International endodontic Journal 1221; 2,(2))-2)2 21.Thomas J.S., John -.C. and 5ichard B.9. “The influence of the maEor and minor foramen diameters

on apical electronic pro8e measurements Journal of endodontics 1220; 16(11)( 520-522 41 ELECTRONIC APEX LOCATORS - A MILLENIUM PERSPECTIVE