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The History of Transportation
The History of Transportation

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CULTURE TECHNOLOGY ie Transportation Values amp Norms Coast Miwok Tribe Coast Miwok Tribe Coast Miwok Tribe Transportation Values amp Norms Walking Contact with env Canoes Fishing ID: 511872 Download Presentation


transportation amp values marin amp transportation marin values bigger culture electric norms vehicles trips cars system million bicycle public

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The History of TransportationSlide2



i.e. Transportation

Values & NormsSlide3

Coast Miwok TribeSlide4

Coast Miwok TribeSlide5

Coast Miwok TribeSlide6


Values & Norms


Contact with env





Carry bigger-heavier loads

The arrival of the white man



Engraving by Theodor de Bry in 1599

Welcome of Francis Drake by Coast Miwok in 1579


Value: The freedom to explore and expandSlide9


American Values:

Freedom to expand and

explore the



Scientific realm


Values & Norms


Agrarian Period

Up to the mid – 1800s

95% of population (mostly farmers) live in rural areas.

Cities are small: 4-5 miles end to endPeople walk or ride horses

Cultural influences during this time:Industrial Revolution

New scientific inventionsExploring the “New World”Slide11




th centuryInventions

Steam engine

Steam ship

Flush toilet



Hot air balloon



Soft drink


Tin can

Steam locomotive


Printing press









Sewing machine

Safety pin


Machine gun







Hot dogs

Traffic lightsSlide12

Industrial Period

Late 1800s to mid 1900s

50% pop. Lives in the cityHorsesTrolley cars Response to Congestion: Elevating streetcars (Chicago)

and bellow street (NY)Trains In 20 years US railroad system grows from 2,818 mi. of track to more than 30,000 mi. Buses Intracity and continental lines Cars 1920: 3.5 million vehicles in US 1994: 195.5 million vehicles in US 469.5 million in the world

45,500 miles of interstate HWY authorized to be developed

Industrial revolution Massive migration to US

Movement to cities close to manufacturing jobs

Population growth

Cities size grow

Transportation needs changeSlide13

1850 California became a state with Marin as one of the original counties.


s and 1890’s, steam-ships and ferries introduced.1896 a rail-line built to ascend Mt. Tam and extended to reach dairy farms in West Marin.

Industrial Period in Marin

A county emerges…Slide14

October 1908, Ford Motor Company introduced the Model T automobile.

In 19 years of production, nearly 15.5 million were sold in the United States alone.

May 1937, the Golden Gate Bridge opened to vehicular traffic


Industrial Period in MarinArrival of the motor age…Slide15


American Values:

Freedom, expand and

explore :


Scientific realm


More train tracks

More & bigger roads

More & bigger vehicles

More people on the road

Longer trips

Values & Norms


Service/Information Period

Mid 1900s to the present

Moving from the city to the suburbs.1980: Typical family had 1 car

2007: Typical family

has 2.5 cars

Europe 2007: 45% trips by walking, biking 10% Public TransportationUSA 2007:

87% trips by car

3% Public transportationSlide17

The Development of Highway 101 and the Formation of Golden Gate Transit

1941 – initial 2 mile stretch of 4 lane highway built

Today – 8 lane highway from Sausalito through Novato

Currently – Carpool lanes run along entire stretch with gap between Corte Madera and San Rafael 1969 – State Legislature mandated development of public transportation system from SF through Marin

Today – Golden Gate Bus and Ferry system runs 24 commute bus routes and 16 ferry feeder service routes plus ferry service from Larkspur and Sausalito to San Francisco

Service/Information Period in MarinSlide18


More train tracks

More & bigger roads

More & bigger vehicles

More people on the road

Longer trips

Know new places

Better & faster communication

More independent

Traffic congestions, delays

Safety hazards

Stress and health problems

Sedentary culture

Values & Norms


The Shadow Side of the Motor Age


Delays, frustration, stress

Safety hazards


and health problemsSlide20


More train tracks

More & bigger roads

More & bigger vehicles

More people on the road

Longer trips

Get to distant places

Better & faster communication

More independent

Traffic congestions, delays

Safety hazards

Stress and health problems

Sedentary culture

Higher use of energy





Values & Norms



More train tracks

More & bigger roads

More & bigger vehicles

More people on the road

Longer trips

Higher use of energy

High use of fossil fuels


Large emissions of Co2

(Global Climate Change)

Bigger & toxic landfills

Use of more land

Relationship with environment?

Values & Norms


True Costs of Automobile Usage

Personal Costs

Social Costs

Governmental Costs



Sounds of modern transportationSlide24

The Birth of a Model Public Transit System

Los Angeles Electric Rail System

Safe, clean, quiet, fast, frequent, on-time, and relatively cheap

1,000 miles of track80 million passengers served in a single yearSlide25

The Death of a Model Public Transit System

In 1939, a consortium of auto-related companies set up holding company in order to:

Buy up trolley lines

Dismantle tracks / Destroy trolleysReplace with diesel-burning busesSteer people away from public transit and into private carsSlide26

Bay Area Electric Rail Suffers Same Fate

1903 – Key Electric Rail System commences in East Bay

1924 – 800 Trains a day brought passengers to ferry boats

1939 – Trains run across Bay Bridge1903 to 1941 – Northwestern Pacific Electric Trains serve Marin County1905 to 1941 – trains ran 180 miles from Oakland to Chico, the longest electric inter-urban run in the countrySlide27

Robber Barons

Late 1800s it was the railroads that were considered the powerbrokers

Huge kickbacks and political influence

Government Land GrantsLabor intimidation and use of immigrant laborRise of Corporations

Economic collapse Slide28

Rise and Demise of Electric Cars

Late 1980

s California passes tough emission standards with mandate to produce some zero-emission cars.GM complies but leases rather than sells electric vehicles.When leases expire, GM refuses to renew them.GM sues California over emission standards and vehicle mandates.GM destroys all their electric vehicles.Slide29

Europeans make 40 – 50% of all trips by walking or biking

US Americans make 87% of all trips by private car

Percentage of commuters biking to work:

Japan 15%

Netherlands 50%

China 77%



Some International ComparisonsSlide30

Good Models

Bike Parking

Yellow (loaner) bike programs

Bicycle friendly streets for all sorts of bikingSlide31

Car Free ZonesSlide32


Measure A

November 2004, Marin residents approved Measure A, a landmark sales tax measure dedicating funds for local transportation projects.

Measure A provides for:

Expanded bus service

Highway 101 HOV (carpool) lane completionRoadway improvements (for cars, bikes and pedestrians)Safer routes to schoolsSlide34

Marin in the 21



May 2001 – County Bicycle Pedestrian Master Plan adoptedTen cities have adopted Bicycle Plans or Bicycle/Pedestrian plans$40 Million in grants have come to Marin since adoption of these plansSlide35

Marin Granted $25 Million As Model Bike and Pedestrian Community

2005 – Marin was selected as one of 4 US communities to serve as a model Non-Motorized Transportation Program to demonstrate that investment in safe, integrated and complete bicycle and pedestrian infrastructure will result in reducing congestion and pollution, improving mobility and the environment and enhancing the health and livability of communities.Slide36

Marin County

s Bicycle and Pedestrian Master Plan

System of flat North-South and East-West separated bike paths Details for safer routes to schoolsAdequate bicycle parkingEducational programs

Swift street connections in and between Marin’s 11 townsSlide37

The Art of Biking in MarinSlide38

New values



New modes



Shom More....
By: celsa-spraggs
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