0 June 2008 First published in February 1999 brPage 2br ISBN Disclaimer brPage 3br brPage 4br brPage 5br brPage 6br brPage 7br Introduction NPI Guide NPI Guide brPage 8br 11 The process for NPI reporting Step 1 Identify all the internal combustion en ID: 30063 Download Pdf

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0 June 2008 First published in February 1999 brPage 2br ISBN Disclaimer brPage 3br brPage 4br brPage 5br brPage 6br brPage 7br Introduction NPI Guide NPI Guide brPage 8br 11 The process for NPI reporting Step 1 Identify all the internal combustion en

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National Pollutant Inventory Emission estimation technique manual for Combustion engines Version 3.0 June 2008 First published in February 1999

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ISBN: Disclaimer

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Introduction NPI Guide NPI Guide

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1.1 The process for NPI reporting Step 1: Identify all the internal combustion engines employed within the site boundary (This in cludes all the vehicles used for transport within the site, this does NOT include the personal vehicles owned by employees and the vehicles

in the car park) Step 2: Determine the total fuel usage/ kilometres travelled/ number of operational hours (activity data) Step 3: Determine whether any of the thresholds have been exceeded Step 4: Estimate the emissions and transfers for your facility (Generally use emission factors to determine emissions) Step 5: Report emissions to the NPI (Following the addition of emissions from other sources to your report) Refer to Section 4 “Threshold calculations Refer to Section 2 “Processes and emissions Refer to Section 5 “Emission estimation techniques Refer to Section 3 “Emission sources Refer to

Section 7 “Next steps for reporting 1.2 Information required to produce an annual NPI report

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1.3 Additional reporting materials

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Processes 2.1 Process descriptions Figure 1: Basic combustion engine pro cess (Source: Queensland Department of Environment and Heritage 1998) internal combustion combustion engine

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2.1.1 Petrol and diesel industrial engines 2.1.2 Large stationary diesel and all stationary dual-fuel engines 2.1.3 Heavy-duty natural gas fired pipeline compressor engines and turbines

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Emission sources

3.1 Emissions to air Fugitive emissions Point source emissions Emission control technologies

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3.2 Emissions to water 3.3 Emissions to land

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Threshold calculations NPI Guide Category 2a substances and thresholds Category 2a NPI substances: Category 2b substances and thresholds

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Category 2b NPI substances:

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Figure 4.1: Determining whether the Ca tegory 2a and Category 2b reporting thresholds have been tripped

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Emission estimation techniques NPI Guide

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5.1 Direct measurement Table 1: Typical

analysis results for an LPG (propane) powered forklift using 10% excess air indicating that the CO/CO ratio is used to determine the CO emission factor Concentration ppm CO (wet basis) CO EF (kg/kg fuel) CO/CO ratio (vol/vol) 5.1.1 Sampling data

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5.1.2 Continuous Emission Monito ring System (CEMS) data 5.2 Mass balance 5.3 Engineering calculations 5.3.1 Fuel analysis method for estimation of SO

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u Example 1– Using fuel analysis data to determine SO emissions 5.3.2 Fuel analysis method for estimation of fluoride

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uuUuu U 5.4 Emission factors uu

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Table 2: Emission factor summary for road transport vehicles Engine type Fuel Table Substances Units

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Table 3: Emission factor summary for industrial vehicles Engine type Fuel Table Substances Units

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Table 4: Emission factor summary for stationary engines Engine type Fuel Control Table Substances Units

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Engine type Fuel Control Table Substances Units 5.4.1 Emission estimates for combusti on engine powered vehicles

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5.4.1.1 Road-transport vehicles u 5.4.1.2 Industrial

vehicles uuu

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uu

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Steps for estimating vehicle emissions Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4

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Step 5

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Table 5: Load factors for various “miscellaneous” industrial vehicles Industrial vehicle type Load factor Estimating industrial vehicle opera ting hours using distance travelled u

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Example 2– Calculating petrol and diesel engine vehicle emissions Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 2.33x10 +02 3.15x10 +01 3.33x10 +01

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Example 3– Estimating emissions from a utility with a diesel engine Step 1 Step 2

Step 3 x x x x 5.4.2 Emission estimates from stationary combustion engines

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5.4.2.1 Engine power method to estimate em issions from stationary combustion engines uuu

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Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5

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Example 4– Calculating stationary engine emissions – engine power technique Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 x x x Estimating stationary engine operating time

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Fuel consumption method to estimate emissions from stationary combustion engines uu Step 1

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Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5

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Example 5–

estimating stationary engine emissions using the fuel input technique Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 5.4.2.2 Estimating stationary en gine fuel consumption u

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5.4.3 Control technologies

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u

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Table 6: Diesel engine emission control technologies Affected parameter Technology Increase Decrease Fuel modifications Engine modifications Exhaust after - treatment

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Table 7: NO reduction and fuel consumption penalties for large stationary diesel and dual-fuel engines Diesel Dual-fuel NOx reduction BSFC 3 NOx reduction BSFC 3 Control

approach (%) (%) (%) (%) Derate Retard Air to fuel Water injection (H O/fuel ratio) Selective catalytic reduction 5.5 Approved alternative

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Transfers of NPI substances in waste NPI Guide

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Emission estimation techniques: acceptable reliability and uncertainty 7.1 Direct measurement 7.2 Mass balance

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o 7.3 Engineering calculations 7.4 Emission factor rating and accuracy

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Next steps for reporting The NPI Guide.

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References

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Appendix A : Definitions and

abbreviations Table 8: Glossary of technical terms and abbreviations used in this manual Term Definition

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Term Definition

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Appendix B : Emission factors B.1 Road transport vehicles Table 9: Emission factors (kg/m³) for diesel vehicle exhaust emissions (car) 2 Substance Emission factor (kg/m³) Emission factor scientific notation (kg/m³) Rating

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Table 10: Emission factors (kg/km) for r oad transport vehicles - petrol cars Substance Emission factor (kg/km) Emission factor scientific notation (kg/km) Rating Table 11: Emission factors (kg/m³) for r

oad transport vehicles - petrol cars Substance Emission factor (kg/m³) Emission factor scientific notation (kg/m³) Rating

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Table 12: Emission factors (kg/km) fo r road transport vehicles – LPG cars ,2,3 Substance Emission factor (kg/km) Emission factor scientific notation (kg/km) Rating Table 13: Emission factors (kg/m³) fo r road transport vehicles – LPG cars 2,4 Substance Emission factor (kg/m³) 3 Emission factor scientific notation (kg/m³) Rating

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Table 14: Emission factors (kg/m³) for passenger cars operating on E10 blends Substance Emission factor (kg/m³)

Emission factor scientific notation (kg/m³) Rating Table 15: Emission factors (kg/m³) for diesel vehicle exhaust emissions (LGV) Substance Emission factor (kg/m³) Emission factor scientific notation (kg/m³) Rating

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Table 16: Emission factors (kg/km) for r oad transport vehicles - petrol LGVs Substance Emission factor (kg/km) Emission factor scientific notation (kg/km) Rating Table 17: Emission factors (kg/m³) for r oad transport vehicles - petrol LGVs Substance Emission factor (kg/m³) Emission factor scientific notation (kg/m³) Rating

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Table 18: Emission

factors (kg/km) for road transport vehicles – LPG LGVs 2,3 Substance Emission factor (kg/km) Emission factor scientific notation (kg/km) Rating Table 19: Emission factors (kg/m³) fo r road transport vehicles – LPG LGVs 2,3 Substance Emission factor (kg/m³) Emission factor scientific notation (kg/m³) Rating

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Table 20: Emission factors (kg/m³) for diesel vehicle exhaust emissions (MGV) Substance Emission factor (kg/m³) Emission factor scientific notation (kg/m³) Rating Table 21: Emission factors (kg/m³) for diesel vehicle exhaust emissions (HGV) Substance Emission factor (kg/m³)

Emission factor scientific notation (kg/m³) Rating

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Table 22: Emission factors (kg/m³) for diesel vehicle exhaust emissions (very HGV) Substance Emission factor (kg/m³) Emission factor scientific notation (kg/m³) Rating Table 23: Emission factors (kg/m³) fo r diesel commercial vehicle exhaust emissions (bus) Substance Emission factor (kg/m³) Emission factor scientific notation (kg/m³) Rating

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Table 24: Emission factors (kg/m³) for natural gas buses and trucks Substance Emission factor 1,2,3 (kg/m³) Emission factor scientific notation (kg/m³) Rating

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Table 25: Emission factors (kg/ m³) for LPG forklift emissions Control Substance Emission factor 1,2 (kg/m³) Emission factor scientific notation (kg/m³) Rating

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B.2 Industrial vehicles Table 26: Emission factors (kg/kWh) fo r diesel industrial vehicle (track-type tractor) exhaust emissions Substance Emission factor 1,3 (kg/kWh) Emission factor scientific notation (kg/kWh) Rating Table 27: Emission factors (kg/kWh) fo r diesel industrial vehicle (wheeled tractor) exhaust emissions Substance Emission factor 1,3 (kg/kWh) Emission factor scientific notation (kg/kWh) Rating

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Table 28: Emission factors (kg/kWh) for di esel industrial vehicle (wheeled dozer) exhaust emissions Substance Emission factor 1,3 (kg/kWh) Emission factor scientific notation (kg/kWh) Rating Table 29: Emission factors (kg/kWh) fo r diesel industrial vehicle (scraper) exhaust emissions Substance Emission factor 1,3 (kg/kWh) Emission factor scientific notation (kg/kWh) Rating

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Table 30: Emission factors (kg/kWh) for diesel industrial ve hicle (motor grader) exhaust emissions Substance Emission factor 1,3 (kg/kWh) Emission factor scientific notation (kg/kWh)

Rating Table 31: Emission factors (kg/kWh) fo r diesel industrial vehicle (wheeled loader) exhaust emissions Substance Emission factor 1,3 (kg/kWh) Emission factor scientific notation (kg/kWh) Rating

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Table 32: Emission factors (kg/kWh) fo r diesel industrial vehicle (track type loader) exhaust emissions Substance Emission factor 1,3 (kg/kWh) Emission factor scientific notation (kg/kWh) Rating Table 33: Emission factors (kg/kWh) fo r diesel industrial vehicle (off-highway truck) exhaust emissions Substance Emission factor 1,3 (kg/kWh) Emission factor scientific notation

(kg/kWh) Rating

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Table 34: Emission factors (kg/kWh) for di esel industrial vehicle (roller) exhaust emissions Substance Emission factor 1,3 (kg/kWh) Emission factor scientific notation (kg/kWh) Rating Table 35: Emission factors (kg/kWh) for diesel industrial vehi cle (miscellaneous) exhaust emissions Substance Emission factor 1,3 (kg/kWh) Emission factor scientific notation (kg/kWh) Rating

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Table 36: Emission factors (kg/kWh) fo r petrol industrial vehicle (wheeled tractor) exhaust emissions Substance Emission factor 1,3 (kg/kWh) Emission factor scientific

notation (kg/kWh) Rating

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Table 37: Emission factors (kg/kWh) for petrol industrial ve hicle (motor grader) exhaust emissions Substance Emission factor 1,3 (kg/kWh) Emission factor scientific notation (kg/kWh) Rating

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Table 38: Emission factors (kg/kWh) fo r petrol industrial vehicle (wheeled loader) exhaust emissions Substance Emission factor 1.3 (kg/kWh) Emission factor scientific notation (kg/kWh) Rating

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Table 39: Emission factors (kg/kWh) for pe trol industrial vehicle (roller) exhaust emissions Substance Emission factor 1,3 (kg/kWh)

Emission factor scientific notation (kg/kWh) Rating

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Table 40: Emission factors (kg/kWh) for petrol industrial vehicle (miscellaneous) exhaust emissions Substance Emission factor 1,3 (kg/kWh) Emission factor scientific notation (kg/kWh) Rating Table 41: Emission factors (kg/kg LPG) for miscellaneous LPG industrial vehicle exhaust emissions Substance Emission factor 1,2, 4,5,6 (kg/kg LPG) Emission factor scientific notation (kg/kg LPG) Rating

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B.3 Stationary engines Table 42: Emission factors (kg/kWh) fo r stationary large (greater than 450 kW) diesel engines

Substance Emission factor 1,4 (kg/kWh) Emission factor scientific notation (kg/kWh) Rating

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Table 43: Emission factors (kg/m³) for stationary large (greater than 450 kW) diesel engines Substance Emission factor (kg/m³) Emission factor scientific notation (kg/m³) Rating

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Table 44: Emission factors (kg/kWh) fo r stationary large (greater than 450 kW) dual fuel engines (fuel mixture of up to 25% waste oil and diesel) 5 Substance Emission factor 1,4 (kg/kWh) Emission factor scientific notation (kg/kWh) Rating

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Table 45: Emission factors (kg/m³)

for stationary large (greater than 450 kW) dual fuel engines (fuel mi xture of up to 25% waste oil with diesel fuel) 5 Substance Emission factor 1,4 (kg/m³) Emission factor scientific notation (kg/m³) Rating

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Table 46: Emission factors (k g/kWh) for dual fuel engines (fuel mixture of up 95% natural gas 5,6 and 5% diesel) Substance Emission factor 1,4 (kg/kWh) Emission factor scientific notation 4 (kg/kWh) Rating Table 47: Emission factors (kg/m³) for dua l fuel engines (fuel mixture of up 95% natural gas and 5% diesel) 2,5,6 Substance Emission factor 1,4 (kg/m³) Emission

factor scientific notation 4 (kg/m³) Rating

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Table 48: Emission factors (kg/m³) for unc ontrolled dual fuel (NG/diesel) engines (fuel mixture of 90% natural gas and 10% diesel) Substance Emission factor 1,3 (kg/m³) Emission factor scientific notation (kg/m³) Rating

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Table 49: Emission factors (kg/kWh) fo r stationary small (less than 450 kW) diesel engines Substance Emission factor 1,2 (kg/kWh) Emission factor scientific notation (kg/kWh) Rating

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Table 50: Emission factors (kg/m³) for st ationary small (less than 450 kW) diesel engines

Substance Emission factor (kg/m³) Emission factor scientific notation (kg/m³) Rating

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Table 51: Emission factors (kg/kWh) fo r uncontrolled gas turbines natural gas engines Substance Emission factor (kg/kWh) Emission factor scientific notation (kg/kWh) Rating Table 52: Emission factors (kg/m³) for uncontrolled gas turbines natural gas engines Substance Emission factor 5 (kg/m³) Emission factor scientific notation 5 (kg/m³) Rating

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Table 53: Emission factors (kg/m³) for uncontrolled 2-stroke lean burn natural gas engines Substance Emission factor (kg/m³)

Emission factor scientific notation (kg/m³) Rating 2

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Table 54: Emission factors (kg/m³) for unc ontrolled 4-stroke natural gas engines Substance Emission factor (kg/m³) Emission factor scientific notation (kg/m³) Rating 2 Table 55: Emission factors (kg/Nm³ fuel) for uncontrolled 4-stroke reciprocating stationary engines (biogas) Substance Emission factor (kg/Nm³ fuel) Emission factor scientific notation (kg/Nm³ fuel) Rating

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Table 56: Emission factors (kg/kWh) fo r uncontrolled 4-stroke reciprocating stationary engines (biogas) Substance Emission factor

(kg/kWh) Emission factor scientific notation (kg/kWh) Rating Table 57: Emission factors (kg/m³) for uncontrolled 4-stoke rich burn natural gas engines Substance Emission factor (kg/m³) Emission factor scientific notation (kg/m³) Rating 2

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Table 58: Emission factors (kg/m³) for uncontrolled landfill gas fired turbines Substance Emission factor (kg/m³) Emission factor scientific notation (kg/m³) Rating Table 59: Emission factors (kg/kWh) for uncontrolled landfill gas fired turbines Substance Emission factor (kg/kWh) Emission factor scientific notation (kg/kWh) Rating

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Appendix C : Useful unit conversion factors and fuel physical properties relating to combustion engines Table 60: Useful conversion factors in relation to determining emissions from combustion engines To convert from Power Weight Volume Length Other units Table 61: Fuel physical properties us eful in determining emissions from combustion engines Fuel Description and properties

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Appendix D : Classification of typical vehicles used by Australian industry Road transport vehicles Classification Description Industrial vehicles Classification Description or examples Appendix

E : Modifications to the Combustion engines emission estimation technique (EET) manual (October 2003) Page Outline of alteration

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