Accessibility of electronic library resources:

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Do librarians consider the needs of people with print disabilities when selecting digital materials?. . Presented at the. 2013 Accessing Higher Grounds Conference. Westminster, CO, November 6. by. Axel . ID: 468006 Download Presentation

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Presentations text content in Accessibility of electronic library resources:

Slide1

Accessibility of electronic library resources:

Do librarians consider the needs of people with print disabilities when selecting digital materials?

Presented at the

2013 Accessing Higher Grounds Conference

Westminster, CO, November 6

by

Axel

Schmetzke

Reference & Instruction Librarian

University

of Wisconsin-Stevens Point

aschmetz@uwsp.edu

(715) 346-4658

Slide2

Overview

Introduction

Research on e-resources selection and accessibility

CD policy and practice

Guidance

provided by professional library organization

CD

literature analysis

Summary &

b

est

p

ractices

Slide3

I. Introduction

Meanings of access/accessibility in the library world

Types of e-resources in libraries

Typical selection process

Accessibility policies pertaining to libraries

Slide4

Meanings of Access\Accessibility in the library world

connectivity

off-campus access

easy authentication

availability on the web

free access

bibliographic access

barrier-free access to information for all people, including those with disabilities

Slide5

Universal

Design=

  

Accessible

Design=

      

Barrier-free

Design

Design that is

sensitive to the variation among people

and thus does not cause certain groups to be  systematically excluded

.

Slide6

Type of e-resources in the library

web pages

online catalogs

indexes & full-text databases

federated searching (

MetaLib

etc.)

resource discovery tools (

ExLibris

Primo etc.)

electronic reference works

e-books

e-journals

electronic reserve/

pdf

-formatted documents

electronic help/reference desk chat

online tutorials & library guides

courseware (D2L etc.)

online survey tools (Survey Monkey etc.)

Slide7

Definition ofCollection development (CD)

Area within librarianship that deals with the selection

of library

information resources.

Slide8

Typical selection process

For

larger purchases

(databases and e-book packages) typically a group process

Committee of librarians chaired by Collection Development (CD) Coordinator

All librarians

Some librarians

CD librarian as representative on larger

consortial

CD committee

Most libraries have a written CD policy

Individual e-book purchases

are initiated by individual librarians or by individual professors outside the library

Slide9

Online accessibility policies pertaining to libraries

Section 508

American with Disabilities Act (ADA)

Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973

State Policy (in WI--Enterprise Standards for Information Technology)

Campus policies

Guidelines issued by professional organization (ALA, ARL, etc.)

Library policies, particularly Collection Development (CD) policies

Slide10

II. Research on E-resources Selection and AccessibilityMy spring 2013 sabbatical project

Slide11

Slide12

Slide13

Slide14

A. Library CD Policies and Practices

Slide15

Methodology

CD Policy analysis

Phone survey of key librarians

Slide16

Two samples

Council of Public Liberal Arts Colleges (COPLAC) Members

24 out of 27 included in survey

1,600-6,500 FT-Enrollment

UW comprehensives

10 out of 11 participated

5,000-10,800 FT-Enrollment

Slide17

Library CD Policies and Practices

Do selection criteria include accessibility for

PwDs

?

If not,

was accessibility ever considered when selecting

e-resources nonetheless?

w

as their possible inclusion in CD policy ever discussed?

are they likely to be included at the next policy revision?

If yes,

which circumstances led to the incorporation of accessibility into CD policy?

how is accessibility determined?

is it recommended or required?

how much feedback do vendors receive?

Slide18

Type of policy

No policy

No longer used

Very general

With special e-resources

section

Separate

E-resources

policy

COPLAC

1

2

12

7

2

UW comprehensives

1

0

3

5

1

Slide19

CD policies and accessibility component?

Some type of policy

Policies

w/ accessibility component

Addition of accessibility

c

omponent

discussed

in past

Addition of accessibility component anticipated

COPLAC

23

1

2

Yes/probably

14 (8)

Considered

4 (3)

Should

be

2 (1)

UW comprehensives

9

4

3

Yes/probably

5 (1)

Considered

0 (0)

Should

be

1 (1)

Slide20

Why was an accessibility component not added to the CD policy even though it had been discussed in the past?

COPLAC (2)

Will be added in next revision. (x2)

WI (3)

Oversight, related to the primarily print-focused nature of the CD policy.

Colleague with visual impairment retired; issue now less talked about.

Discussion with Disability Coordinator; focus shifted to relocating assistive technology to a less isolated area in the Library.

Slide21

Was accessibility ever considered despite lack of policy?

Some type of policy

Policies

w/ accessibility component

Despite lack of

access

. component in policy, was access.

ever considered during e-resource selection?

COPLAC

23

1

7

UW comprehensives

9

4

3

Slide22

Instances when accessibility was considered even though not required by policy

Typically when considering e-book platforms/packages.

One

instance: push

from a students with disabilities

group (when

considering

Proquest’s

Press Display

database

)

Slide23

Questions CD policies addressing accessibility

Slide24

Which circumstances led to the incorporation of accessibility into CD policy at Sonoma State University --background

OCR Compliance Review at California Community Colleges, 1996-98

Issue:  Access to print and computer-based information for students with visual impairments

OCR Findings/Ruling (1998):

Web-pages are typically not designed accessibly.

Concept of accessibility should be firmly integrated into the development of distance education programs and services, including campus web pages.

Slide25

The California State University Board of Trustees: Policy on Disability Support and Accommodations - Executive Order 926 (2004):

Information Resources and

Technologies

It is the policy of the CSU to make information technology resources and services accessible to all CSU students, faculty, staff and the general public regardless of disability.

….is

not limited to computer and network access and services, computer-delivered or enhanced instruction,

library electronic information resources, library online catalogs and homepages

, campus informational web sites, computer-delivered or assisted administrative services, and voice and video programs and services.

Slide26

CSU Accessible Technology Initiative  (ATI) http://www.calstate.edu/accessibility/

Established in 2006

Guide to implement

Excecutive

Order

926

across

Calstate

Several revisions since then, the latest in Jan 2013

Slide27

SSU Accessible Technology Initiative  http://www.sonoma.edu/accessibility/

Roadmap framed around annual goals for the major priority areas.

2011-12 goals include:

Electronic and Information Technology Procurement

http://www.sonoma.edu/accessibility/eit/

Establish an advisory group that meets on a regular basis to discuss, and review accessible procurement topics.

Establish and deploy new employee orientation training materials that provide overview of Section 508 requirements and where to get more information.

Establish and deployed training program for purchase requestors.

Slide28

Which circumstances led to the incorporation of accessibility into CD policy at four UW comprehensives?

Inspired by 2002 CDC/UW System Libraries Guidelines for a Shared Electronic Collection, which states that “evidence of progress by vendors to meet the accessibility needs of those with disabilities” is to be considered.

CD librarian served on committee in which the needs of students with print disabilities were discussed.

L

ibrarian with research interest in this area.

Campus had adopted an Online Accessibility Policy.

Campus has Disabilities Services & Vocational Rehabilitation

Institiute

high

sensitivity to disability-related issues and increased visibility of

PwDs

on campus.

Campus has a strong mission to serve students with disabilities.

Slide29

Required vs. Desired

Some types of policy

Policies

w/ accessibility component

Required or

Desired/Preferred

COPLAC

23

1

exceptions

need to be justified

1

UW comprehensives

9

4

preferred/to be considered

3

to

be considered & exceptions must be justified

1

Slide30

Is accessibility always discussed?

Some type

of policy

Policies

w/ accessibility component

Is

a

ccessibility

always discussed when e-resources are considered for procurement?

COPLAC

23

1

yes

1

UW comprehensives

9

4

yes

1

often

1

sometimes

1

almost never

1

Slide31

Reasons for not discussing accessibility

assumes that others will look into it

takes accessibility for granted

typically not perceived to be a problem

Slide32

Source for accessibility information

Some type of policy

Policies

w/ accessibility component

Information sources (accessibility)

COPLAC

23

1

vendor

1

UW comprehensives

10

4

Vendor only

2

Vendor & Eyeballing

1

na

1

Slide33

Terminology used when asking vendors about accessibility

All

policies

Policies

w/ accessibility component

Terminology

used

COPLAC

25

1

Section

508 conformance,

VPAT

1

UW comprehensives

9

4

ADA

2

Accessible

2

Section 508 conformance

1

na

1

Slide34

Was it ever the case that an e-resource was not selected, or deselected, because it was inaccessible?

Some type of policy

Policies

w/ accessibility component

Ever NOT selected, or deselected

COPLAC

23

1

Yes

1

UW comprehensives

9

4

Yes

0

No

3

Yes (system) &

No (campus)

1

Slide35

Do you provide vendors with specific reasons why their product was selected, or not selected?

Some type of policy

Policies

w/ accessibility component

Provide specific reasons for selection

decision?

COPLAC

23

1

?

UW comprehensives

10

4

Yes

1

Often

1

To some extent

1

No

1

Slide36

Slide37

B. Guidance from Professional Organizations (ALA, ARL, etc.)

Slide38

ALA—a multi-headed entity

Slide39

ALA suborganizations

ALA

11 divisions

About 60 sections

Est. 500 interest groups

ALA

Council

Offices

Roundtables

Special Assemblies

Special Working Groups and Committees

Slide40

ALA-ACRL, ARL, and CRL

ACRL = Association of College and Research Libraries

ARL = Association of Research Libraries (represents 125 research libraries)

CRL = Center of Research Libraries

Plus state-level library associations

Slide41

Library-related groups which have addressed collection development and accessibility

ALA Council (2009)

ALCTS-CM

Chief Collection Development Officers IG (June 2012)

ALA Digital Content Working Group (2011)

ASCLA

“Think Accessible Before You Buy” Toolkit

Center for Research Libraries

ARL Joint Task Force on Services to Patrons with Print Disabilities (Nov. 2012)

ARL Accessibility and Universal Design Working Group, 2013

Slide42

ALA Council

Governing body of ALA

Its policies guide the activities of the divisions and their subgroups

Slide43

Purchasing of Accessible Electronic Resources Resolution ALA Council Document #52 (Revised 7.14.09)

That the American Library Association (ALA) strongly recommends

:

1. That all libraries purchasing, procuring, using, maintaining and contracting for electronic resources and services

require vendors to guarantee that products and services comply with Section 508 regulations, Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.0, or other applicable accessibility standards and guidelines

;

and

2. That all libraries purchasing, procuring, and contracting for electronic resources and services ensure, through

their own testing protocols or by requiring vendor guarantees,

that electronic products and services have been fully tested and found to be in compliance with applicable accessibility regulations, guidelines, and criteria;

and

3. That funding authorities, including private institutions, the federal government and state and local governments, provide

adequate funding

to allow all libraries purchasing, procuring, and contracting for electronic resources and services the ability to comply with accepted standards and laws of accessibility for people with disabilities.”

Slide44

Association for Specialized and Cooperative Library Agencies (ASCLA)

Among others

Caters to members interested in special library populations

Advocates for universal access

Develops and disseminates professional tools

Two accessibility resources

“Think Accessible Before You Buy” Toolkit.

Wiki (Adina

Mulliken

): Accessibility to Library Databases and Other Online Library Resources for People with Disabilities

Slide45

ASCLA “Think Accessible Before You Buy” Toolkit

Checklists and guidelines to help libraries “think accessible” as they consider purchasing electronic resources and web services.

Relies heavily on Section 508 and WCAG, but tries to avoid the technical language and to bring it down to a level ordinary librarians can handle.

Slide46

ASCLA-Accessibility Wiki (Adina Mulliken)

Accessibility of specific vendor-provided library e-resources

Experience about interacting with vendors

Accessible licensing language

Last updated Dec. 2010

Slide47

ARL Joint Task Force on Services to Patrons with Print Disabilities (Nov. 2012)

Report (Nov. 1012)—41 pages

Focus: electronically provided content and what needs to be done to ensure its accessibility

Much discussion of the barriers built into current copyright law and licensing practices

Slide48

Recommendations

Closer

cooperation among IT, library, administration and disability services, incl.

Monitor trends and developments

Conduct usability studies with users with disabilities

Guide efforts to provide universal access to library collections & services

Universal accessibility should be embedded in future licensed and acquired products and services

Licensing must meet the legal requirement of accessibility

Creation

of an Accessibility and Universal Design Working Group

Slide49

ARL Accessibility and Universal Design Working Group, 2013Accomplishments

Making solid headway working with AAU, APLU, NFB, and EDUCAUSE

Molly

Schwartz (ARL)—building an

accessibility toolkit

to help institutions become accessible, incl. standards and best practices, technical standards, testing tools , procurement language, etc

.

Model licensing language—several examples have been compiled

Slide50

ARL Model US License

Licensor shall comply with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), by supporting assistive software or devices such as large-print interfaces, text-to-speech output, refreshable braille displays, voice-activated input, and alternate keyboard or pointer interfaces in a manner consistent with the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines published by the World Wide Web Consortium’s Web Accessibility Initiative. (same as CRL’s

Liblicense

model).

Licensor shall provide Licensee current completed Voluntary Product Accessibility Template (VPAT) to detail compliance with the federal Section 508 standards. In the event that the Licensed Materials are not accessibility compliant, the Licensee may demand that the Licensor promptly make modifications that will make the Licensed Materials Accessibility compliant; in addition, in such an event, the Licensee shall have the right to modify or copy the Licensed Materials in order to make it useable for Authorized Users

.

Slide51

Slide52

C . Collection Development Literature Analysis

Slide53

Research Questions

Is accessibility of e-resources, as it applies to PwD, on the authors’ radar screens?

If so, is it

consistently covered where appropriate?

covered in any depth?

Is “ADA compliance” explained?

Will selectors learn what specific questions to ask?

Is there any detectable trend?

Slide54

Books on Collection Development

Focus

# of books (total)

CD general

9

CD e-resources

23

E-books

2

E-journal

1

Digital repositories/digitized coll.

3

Subject

specific

2

All

40

Slide55

CD general (examples)

Peggy Johnson,

Fundamentals

of Collection Development and Management

(2nd ed

.)—ALA 2009

Evans &

Saponaro

,

Collections

Development Basics

(6th

ed.) 2012

Mack (ed.), Collection

Development Policies. New Directions for Changing Collections (

copubl

. in "The Acquisitions Librarian

") 2003

Clement &

Foy,

Collection

Development in a Changing Environment. Policies and Organization for College and University Libraries

. CLIP Note #42 (ALA/ACRL

) 2010

Slide56

CD e-resources (examples)

Kovacs,

The

Kovacs Guide to Electronic Library Collection Development

(2nd ed

.) 2009

Lee (ed.),

Collection

Management and Strategic access to Digital Resources. The New Challenge for Research Libraries

(

copubl

. in J. of Library Administration

) 2005

Brumley

,

Electronic

Collection Management Forms, Policies, Procedures, and Guidelines

Manual

. 2009

Bleiler

&

Livingston,

Evaluating

E-resources

(SPEC Kit 316, ARL

) 2010

Slide57

Books on Collection Development

Focus

# of books (total)

# of books addressing accessibility at least once

CD general

9

1

CD e-resources

23

9

E-books

2

1

E-journal

1

1

Digital repositories/digitized coll.

3

0

Subject

specific

2

0

All

40

12

Slide58

Accessibility coverage by year (2001-2012)

Year range

Total # of pubs

# of books addressing accessibility at least once

% of books addressing accessibility at least once

2001-2003

6

1

17%

2004-2006

14

4

29%

2007-2009

7

3

43%

2010-2012

9

3

33%

All

36

11

30%

Slide59

Language used

Compliant with text-to-speech software or other enabling technology (Kovac 2000)

"flexibitity of the software to accommodate users with disabilities," ADA compliance. (Yu & Breivold, 2008)

Conformance to accepted standards for disabled access (Stuart Lee, 2002)

"disability compliance (e.g. ADA)” (Bleiler & Livingston, 2010)

“ADA-friendly” (Wikoff, 2012)

Slide60

Lack of consistency (1a)

Curtis,

E-Journal. A How-To-Do-It Manual for Building, Managing, and Supporting Electronic Journal Collections

(2004)

3-page section on

“Serving

users with

Disabilities, covering equipment, accessibility standards, and product compliance”

Slide61

Lack of consistency (1b)

There are a few things you can do to help improve vendors’ efforts in making their e-journal accessible to all of your users:

Become familiar with the WCAG design guidelines

Make product accessibility an issue among your colleagues

Test products using your library’s assistive technology

Talk to e-journal providers at conference and during sales visits

Include accessibility requirements in RFPs

Slide62

Lack of consistency (1c)

Appendix: Sample policies and sample evaluation

E-Journal Collection Policy for Paid Subscription

C. Accessibility

Accessible by IP recognition

Accessible to walk-in library users

Easy to print and download

Readable on computer screens

Response time must be within acceptable limits

Not requiring a proprietary plug-in

Slide63

Lack of consistency (2)

Wikoff

,

Electronic

Resources management in the Academic Library. A professional

Guide.

(2012)

"ADA-friendly" incl. among selection criteria in sample policy (Appendix A

)

Nowhere else addressed or explained

Ch. 2 - Acquiring Electronic

Resources

Ch

. 6 - Evaluating E-Resources

Slide64

Depth of coverage—two positive exceptions

Jacobs (ed.), Electronic

Resources Librarianship and management of Digital Information: Emerging Professional

Roles, 2007

Cheryl Riley, “The Electronic Resources (ER) Librarian & Patrons with Disabilities,” pp. 83-98.

Curtis,

E-Journal. A How-To-Do-It Manual for Building, Managing, and Supporting Electronic Journal Collections

(2004)

3-page section on “Serving users with Disabilities, covering equipment, accessibility standards, and product compliance

Slide65

Depth of coverage—extremely brief

Yu and Breivold,

Electronic Resource Management in Libraries. Research and Practice

(2012, 416 p.).

“It is important to determine … the flexibility of the software to accommodate users with disabilities or compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA).” p.52.

[Accessibility is not addressed in the following checklist (pp. 54-56).]

Slide66

Depth of coverage—unexplained or ignored

Evans &

Saponaro

,

Collections Development Basics

(6th

ed

) 2012

Acknowledge potential conflict between

Digital Rights Management (DRM)

and accessibility

Discuss needs of users with disabilities …

… facilities, physical environment, large print alternatives, mechanical and human assistance (which “must be provided”).

“Digital materials and even library Websites raise similar access issues. Knowing what percentage of the service community might call for such assistance helps plan fund allocations.”

Slide67

Depth of coverage—unaware of the importance of accessible design

Vicki Gregory

,

Collection Development and Management for 21st Century Library Collections. An Introduction

. (2011

).

2 pages discussing ADA issues, focusing exclusively on

Alternative formats (large print, video)

Variety of hardware and software

National Library for the Blind and Physically Handicapped

Slide68

Summary and Best Practices

Slide69

Summary (e-resource)

Some library-related professional organization have, at some point, addressed the need for barrier-free collection practices.

However, organizations, and the groups within, tend to be ill informed about each others’ efforts (or even existence).

The vast majority of CD policies in small-to-mid-sized public universities do not address accessibility. (The UW comprehensives did relatively well.)

Even when they do, accessibility is often not considered during the actual selection process; i.e., there is a discrepancy between policy and practice.

The assumption is sometimes made that vendors are now aware of the problems and have designed accessible products.

Accessibility claims are not corroborated through vendor-independent venues.

The importance of accessibility is not consistently communicated to vendors.

Most books on CD do not address accessibility at all, and there is no indication that things have improved over time.

Books on CD that do address accessibility rarely do so consistently and in sufficient depth.

The terminology used by the authors is often too vague to be of much practical value

.

Slide70

Best Practices

Clearly, CD policy must address accessibility in some way.

But how?

Slide71

What to ask for?

Conformance to the latest accessibility guidelines/standards

Currently WCAG 2.0, level AA

Section 508 (Refresh)

Functionally compatible with currently used assistive technology (Ron Stewart’s recommendation)

Slide72

Required or desirable/recommended?

E-resources

must

conform to WCAG 2.0.

If possible, e-resources

should

conform to WCAG 2.0.

Selectors

must consider

accessibility along with other criteria.

Slide73

From where to get the information?

Vendors

Research & other e-resources Info

Accessibility to Library Databases Wiki

(Mullikan)

Web Accessibility Survey Site

(

Schmetzke

)

Libraries for Universal Accessibility (LUA)

Collection accessibility ...

Library Report, Oct 2012

Accessibility/Usability testing on campus

Collaborate with Assistive Tech/Disability Service staff

Your own testing (

NVDA

)

Think Accessible Before You Buy (ASCLA)

Slide74

What to ask vendors?

To which extent does your product conform to WCAG 2.0, Level AA, guidelines? (again, Ron’s recommendation).

Could you provide us with your VPAT (Voluntary Product Accessibility Template)? (

VPAT example

)

Has your product been tested for usability by people with disabilities using assistive technology?

Could you please give a brief demo how your product works with the NVDA

screenreader

?

Your website states that you are working on improving your product’s accessibility. This statement has been there for at least a year. What specific progress have you made since then? (

Example—Gale’s 2008 statement

)

Slide75

Special point to make when talking with vendors and librarians about online accessibility

Built-in accessibility features may work fine for people who can see the screen …but relying on these features is not enough.

Blind people, who can’t see the screen, and other library users with print disabilities, need to be able to access e-resources with their own assistive technology.

Slide76

Sample policies

Slide77

From UWSP’s CD Policy www.uwsp.edu/library/...development/collectionDevelopmentPolicies.docx

The University Library shall comply with the UWSP Online Accessibility Policy, which requires developers and selectors of online resources to strive for compliance with relevant Section 508 standards. The University Library is working towards the establishment of an online information infrastructure that is accessible and usable for all, including people with disabilities.

Decision-making

pertaining to the development or procurement of online resources will, if applicable, involve the following:

Gaining

familiarity with, and implementing, state-of-the art accessible design practices for the product in question.

Taking

into account the accessibility of products or services under consideration.

Requiring

vendors to provide documentation pertaining to their products' accessibility (conformance to Section 508).

Inquiring

about their products' usability for users of assistive technology (outcomes of usability testing).

Consulting

the literature about the accessibility of the considered resources.

Discussing

more accessible alternatives.

Documenting

the reasons for selecting an inaccessible resource in the Library's Collection Development Committee minutes.

Including accessibility

as a desired resource quality in RFPs (Requests for Proposals).

Slide78

University of Syracuse Libraries: Accessibility of library-licensed electronic collectionshttp://library.syr.edu/services/getting_help/disability/electronic/

The SU Libraries will take accessibility into consideration when selecting electronic resources for purchase. 

Specifically, the Libraries will:

Ask vendors of new resources to provide information in writing about their degree of compliance with Section 508 and their testing with adaptive equipment, or other criteria as standards of accessibility evolve. (See Appendix A of

Electronic Collections and Accessibility for People with Disabilities

proposal for suggested procedures and

questions for vendors

.)

Test new resources on adaptive equipment, with support of the Office of Disability Services as available.

Document decisions regarding the evaluation of new resources, based on these criteria.

Slide79

Licensing language

See Model Licensing Language suggested in the ARL Report

(see previous slide)

Still evolving

Slide80

Any questions?

Slide81


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