Gentner D  Analogy I W Bechte  G Graha Eds

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A companion t cognitive science pp 107113 Oxford Blackwell Analog DEDR CENTNE Analogie ar partia similaritie betwee differen situation tha suppor furthe infer ences Specifically analog i a kin o similarit i whic th sam syste o relation hold acros di ID: 35564 Download Pdf

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Gentner D Analogy I W Bechte G Graha Eds

A companion t cognitive science pp 107113 Oxford Blackwell Analog DEDR CENTNE Analogie ar partia similaritie betwee differen situation tha suppor furthe infer ences Specifically analog i a kin o similarit i whic th sam syste o relation hold acros di

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Gentner D Analogy I W Bechte G Graha Eds

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Gentner D (1998) Analogy I W Bechte & G Graha (Eds.) A companion t cognitive science (pp 107-113) Oxford Blackwell Analog DEDR CENTNE Analogie ar partia similaritie betwee differen situation tha suppor furthe infer ences Specifically analog i a kin o similarit i whic th sam syste o relation hold acros differen objects Analogie thu captur parallel acros differen situation Analog i ubiquitou i cognitiv science First i th stud o learning analogie ar importan i th transfe o knowledg an inference acros differen concepts situations o domains The ar ofte use i instructio t explai ne

concepts suc electricit o evaporatio (se Articl 54 EDUCATION; Second analogie ar ofte use i PROBLE SOLVIN an REASONING Third analogie ca serv a menta model fo understandin a ne domain Fo example novice i electricit ofte reaso abou electri curren usin menta model base o analogie wit wate flo o wit crowd movin entities Thes analogica menta model ca b misleadin a wel a help ful Th cognitiv anthropologis Wille Kempto interviewe home-owner abou ho thei furnace worke an foun tha man o the applie incorrec analogies suc a ga peda mode whereb th highe th thermosta i set th faste th furnac heat u th

house Fourth analog i importan i creativity Studie i histor o scienc sho tha analog wa a frequen mod o though fo suc grea scientist Faraday Maxwell an Kepler Mor direc evidenc come fro studie b Kevi Dunbar wh trace scientists day-to-da activitie an discussion i fou differen microbiolog laboratories H foun tha frequen us o analog wa on o th chie predictor o researc productivity Fifth analog i use i communicatio an per suasion Fo example environmentalist ma compar th Eart t Easte Island wher overpopulatio an exploitatio o th island' bountifu ecolog le t massiv los o species famine an societa

collapse Th invite inferenc i tha th poin o n retur ma pas unnoticed A fina reaso t stud analog i tha analog an it cousin similarity underli man othe cognitiv processes Fo example mos theorie o con ceptua structur assum tha item ar categorize i par o th basi o similarit betwee th curren situatio an th prio exemplar o prototyp (se Articl 25 WOR MEANING) Muc o huma categorizatio an reasonin ma b base o implici explici analogie betwee th curren situatio an prio situations A anothe ex ample analogica processe ar involve i usin conceptua metaphors suc a "Lov a journey o "Tim i a commodity. Suc

metaphor hav bee claime t perfor structurin rol acros differen domain (se Articl 37 COGNITIV LINGUISTICS) Histor Th stud o analog ha bee characterize b fruitfu interdisciplinar convergenc betwee psycholog an artificia intelligence wit significan influence fro histor 10
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DEDR CENTNE science philosophy an linguistics Importan earl wor cam ou o philosophy notabl Mar Hesse' (1966 analysi o analogica model i science However earl psychologica researc o analog mostl focuse o simpl four-ter analogie o th kin use i intelligenc testing Davi Rumelhar an Adel Abrahamse modele analog a a

mappin fro on menta spac t anothe an foun tha respondent give analogie lik "Hors i t zebr a Jo i t ? woul choos th answe (e.g. fox) whos positio relativ t dog wa th sam a tha o zebr relativ t horse. Rober Sternber measure solutio time t solv suc analogie a a wa o studyin componen processe - encoding, inference, mapping, application, an response - an indi vidua difference i thei use th earl 1980s a ne bree o analogica model appeare tha assume comple representation an processes Artificia intelligenc researcher lik Patric Winsto an Jaim Carbonel suggeste computationa principle applicabl t huma

process in an inspire psychologist t creat explici model o representatio an process cognitiv science a multidisciplinar approac gre u i whic analog wa viewe a mappin betwee structure representations suc a propositiona representation schemata Processe o analogica us mode th us o analog i learnin an reasoning curren account distinguis th followin subprocesses (1 retrieval: give som curren situatio i workin memory th perso accesse a prio simila o analogou exampl fro long-ter memory (2 mapping: give tw case i workin memory mapping consist of aligning thei repres entationa structure t deriv th

commonalitie an projecting inferences fro on t th other Mappin i followe b (3 evaluation o th analog an it inference an ofte b (4 abstraction o th structur commo t bot analogs A furthe proces tha ma occu i (5 re-representation: adaptation o on o bot representation t improv th match W begi wit th processe o mappin throug evaluation reservin retrieva fo later Analogical mapping Th cor proces i analog i mapping: th proces b whic on cas i use t explai an predic another I mapping a familia situatio - th base o sourc analo - provide a kin o mode fo makin inference abou a unfamilia situatio - th

target analog On o th firs theorie t focu o thi proces wa structure-mappin theor (Centner 1983) Accordin t thi theory a analog convey tha a syste o relation tha hold i th bas domai als hold i th targe domain whethe o no th actua object i th tw domain ar similar Th alignmen mus b structurally consistent: ther i one-to-one correspondence betwee element i th bas an element th target an th argument o correspondin predicate mus als correspon (parallel connectivity). A furthe assumptio i th systematicity principle: system o relation connecte b higher-orde constrainin relation suc a caus contribut

mor t analog tha d isolate matche o a equa numbe o independen matches Th informatio highlighte b th compariso form a connecte relationa system an commonalitie connecte t th matchin syste gai i importance Fo example 10
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ANALOG Clemen an I foun tha peopl give analogou storie judge tha correspondin assertion wer mor importan t th analog whe the wer connecte t othe matchin informatio tha whe the wer not A paralle resul wa foun fo infer enc projection peopl wer mor likel t impor a fac fro th bas t th targe whe i wa connecte t othe predicate share wit th targ.: Thu ther i a kin "n

matc i a island phenomenon I analogica matching peopl ar no inter este i isolate coincidenta matches rather the see causa an logica connec tion tha giv th analog it inferentia force Anothe importan approac t analog tha gre u i th 1980 wa Holyoak' pragmati account Focusin o th us o analog i proble solving thi approac emphasize th rol o pragmatic i analog - ho curren goal an contex guid th interpretatio o a analogy Holyoa define analog a similarit wit respec t goa an suggeste tha mappin processe ar oriente toward attainmen o goa states Holyoa an Pau Thagar (1989 combine thi pragmati focu wit th

assumptio o structura consistenc an develope a multi-constrain approac t analog i whic similarity structura parallelism an pragmati factor interac t produc a interpretation evaluation Evaluating a analog involve a leas thre kind o judgment On criterio i struc tura soundness whethe th alignmen an th projecte inference ar structurall consistent Anothe i th factua validit o th projecte inference i th target Becaus analog i no a deductiv mechanism thes candidat inference ar onl hypotheses thei factua correctnes i no guarantee b thei structura consistenc an mus b checke separately Bria Falkenhaine

' Phinea progra operationalize thi b firs attemptin t prov th inference tru o fals i th targe domain I thi failed a empirica tes wa derived A thir criterion whic applie i a problem solvin situation i whethe th analogica inference ar relevan t th curren goals analog ma b structurall soun an yiel tru inferences bu stil fai th rel evanc criterio i i doe no bea o th proble a hand A relate issu discusse b Mar Kean i th adaptability o th inference t th targe problem Schema abstraction schema abstraction, th commo syste tha represent th interpretatio o a ana log i retaine fo late use Fo example Mar

Gic an Holyoak' (1983 researc proble solvin provide evidenc tha peopl ca abstrac th relationa corres pondence betwee example int a schema Comparin structurall simila problem lead t improve performanc o furthe paralle problem an promote transfe fro concret comparison t abstrac analogies Computationa model o analogica mappin Computin a analog typicall involve bot matchin th representation an projectin ne inferences Computationa model ca b classifie int projection-first an alignment-first models accordin t whic proces occur first I projection-first models th analogica abstractio i derive initiall

fro th bas alon an projecte 10
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DEDR CENTNE ont th target afte whic i i aligne (o matched wit th target' representation thi kin o model th firs ste i processin a analog i t fin a projectabl schem o deriv a abstractio i th bas an projec i ont th target The th syste attempt t verif th projecte structur i th target t discove fo eac assertio eithe (a tha i ca b prove correc i th targe o th basi o existin knowledg (o i alread present) o (b tha i ca b prove fals i th targe (i whic cas th analog mus b rejected) o (c tha i ca neithe b prove no disproved i whic cas i stand a a possibl

ne inference Tw recen simulation tha fi loosel int th projection-firs mod ar Keane' IA (Incrementa Analog Machine an Humme an Holyoak' LIS model alignment-first models th commo syste arise interactively vi processe o alignment wit th projectio o inference a a secon step Fo example th Struc ture-Mappin Engin (SME o Falkenhainer Kennet Forbus an mysel begin b alignin tw representation an the carrie ove furthe predicate fro th bas t th target Whe give tw potentia analogs i firs find al possibl loca matche betwee element o th bas an th target The i combine thes int kernel - littl cluster o

connecte correspondence - an finall i merge th kernel int th tw o thre maxima structurall consisten system o matches whic represen possibl interpretation o th analogy I perform a structura evaluatio o th ana logy whic reflect th siz an dept o th matchin system an draw spontaneou candidate inferences usin a proces o structura completio fro bas t target (Se Forbus Centner an Law 1995 fo a description. Anothe alignment-firs mode i Holyoa an Thagard' (1989 Analogica Con strain Mappin Engin (ACME) whic use a local-to-globa algorith simila t SME's However ACM differ fro SM i som importan ways First

i i a multi constrain connectionis system I ACME structura consistenc i onl a sof con straint alon wit semanti similarit an pragmati bindings Thi allow mor flexibilit i th mappin process bu wit th cos tha structurall inconsisten map ping ca easil occur Second wherea SM typicall produce tw o mor winnin interpretations ACM use a winner-take-al algorithm producin on interpretatio tha i th bes compromis amon th thre constraints Third candidat inference ar requeste b th use rathe tha bein generate automaticall a i SME Projection-firs model ar particularl ap whe ther i on mai schem asso ciate wit th

bas tha ca b projecte ont th target However the encounte difficultie whe mor tha on schem i associate wit th base A furthe draw bac i tha the d no readil captur emergen processing i whic th juxtapositio tw cases lead t insight no initiall obviou i eithe representation Alignment firs model see ap fo processin ne comparisons i whic th commo abstrac tio i no alread a salien schema However i case wher th bas domai possesse conventionalize abstrac schema i seem likel tha th learne wil simpl projec thi schem rathe tha derivin a ne matc fro scratch Thu a complet accoun analogica processin wil probabl

involv bot kind o algorithms a differen stage o knowledge Fo example give th analog "Th ato i lik a sola system, advance learne migh proces i i projection-firs mode b projectin th abstrac tio central force system fro th bas (th sola system) However a novic learne wh ha no ye explicitl store th central-forc abstractio wil nee t deriv th commo central force abstractio vi a alignmen process A discusse above on 11
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ANALOG resul o suc a alignmen i tha th commo syste become mor salient thu promotin th developmen o a relationa abstraction Thus wit increasin domai expertise

projection-firs processe ma supplan alignment-firs processes Retrieva strikin an robus findin i tha peopl ofte fai t retriev potentiall usefu analogs eve whe i i clea tha the hav retaine th materia i memory Fo example Gic an Holyoa (1983 gav subject a classi thought-problem Ho ca surgeo cur a inoperabl tumo withou usin s muc radiatio tha th sur roundin fles wil b killed Onl abou 1 percen o th participant cam u wit th idea solution whic i t converg o th tumo wit severa wea beam o radiation I give a prio analogou stor i whic soldier converge o a fort thre time a man peopl (abou 3 percent produce

convergenc solutions Surpris ingly th majorit o participant stil faile t thin o th convergenc solution Ye whe thes peopl wer simpl give a hin t thin abou th stor the ha heard th percentag o correc convergenc solution agai nearl tripled t abou 8 per cent W ca infe tha th fortres stor wa store i memor an wa potentiall useful bu i wa no retrieve b th analogou tumo problem Thi failur t acces potentiall usefu analog i a majo caus o th inert knowledge proble i EDUCATION FA'idenc furthe suggest tha memor no onl fail t produc analogou items bu ofte produce superficiall simila item instead Centner

Rattermann an Forbu gav subject a se o storie t remembe an late showe the prob storie tha wer eithe surface-simila t thei memor ite (e.g. simila object an characters structurall simila (i.e. analogous wit simila higher-orde causa structure) Subject wer tol t write ou an o th prio storie tha the wer reminde of Surfac commonalitie wer th bes predicto o memor access Recal rate wer tw t fiv time highe whe th probe ha surfac commonalitie tha whe th probe ha structura commonalities However i a separat ratin task structurall simila pair wer rate muc highe i inferentia soundnes an eve i rate simi

larit tha surface-simila pairs Participant rate thei ow su face-simila reminding lo i inferentia valu an i similarity Th goo new her i tha althoug surfac similarit ha a larg sa i initia memor retrieval peopl ofte rejec purel superficia matche quickly retainin matche wit structura commonalitie fo fur the processing (Se Forbus Gentner an Law 1995 fo furthe details. Simila result hav bee foun i problem-solvin tasks (Se Reeve an Weisberg 1994 fo a comprehensiv review. Researc b Bria Ross Miria Bassok Laur Novick an other bear ou th findin tha reminding o prio problem ar strongl influence b surfac

similarity althoug structura similarit bette predict succes solvin curren problems Thi ga betwee acces an us ma b les pronounce fo expert i a domain Fo example Novic foun tha peopl wit mathematic trainin retrieve fewe surface-simila lure i a problem-solvin tas an rejecte the mor quickl tha di novic mathematicians Thi ma ste i par fro experts encodin patterns Ther i evidence tha relationa reminding increas whe th sam relationa terminolog i use i th memor ite an th prob item suggest in tha unifor encodin o th item i importan i promotin retrieval Il
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DEDR CENTNE Computational

models of similarity-based retrieval Ther ar tw mai approache t similarity-base retrieval Th CASE-BASE REASON IN approac i founde o th vie tha muc huma reasonin i base o retrieva an o us o specifi episode i memory Thi researc focuse o ho memor ca b organize suc tha relevan case ar retrieve whe needed Th secon approach mor prevalen amon psychologists aim t captur th phenomen o huma memor retrieval includin error base o surfac similarity Tw model i thi spiri ar Analo Retrieva b Constrain Satisfactio (ARCS) b Thagard Holyoak Nelson an Gochfeld an Man Ar Called/bu Fe Ar Chose (MAC/FAC) b Forbes

Centner an Law Fo example MAC/FA utilize a two-stag process A initia content-similarit stag i followe b a structura alignmen proces (tha o SME tha filter th initia poo o potentia retrievals ARC use a competitiv retrieva algorith combinatio o conten similarity structura similarity an pragmati reley ance (Se Holyoa an Thagard 1995 fo a discussio o ARCS an Forbus Gentner an Law 1995 fo a compariso o th tw models. Developmen o analog Eve preschoo childre appea t engag i metapho an analogy a An Brown Ush Goswami an other hav shown However ther ar marke developmenta changes Youn childre ar likel t

interpre analogie an metaphor i term o themati connection o commo objec propertie rathe tha commo relationa systems Fo example whe I aske childre "Wh i a clou lik a sponge?" five year-old respon tha bot ar roun an fluffy rathe tha respondin tha bot ca hol an releas wate (th adul response) Som theorist explai thi relationa shif du t children' increasin domai knowledge wit mappin processe remainin roughl constan acros age Other sugges tha th shif i du t a chang i process in capacity (Se Goswami 1992 Halford 1993 an Gentne an Rattermann 1991 fo furthe discussion. Extension o analog theor Theorie

o analog hav beer extende t ordinar (litera o overall similarity Th basi ide i tha overal similarit ca b though o a a especiall ric analog - one tha share bot structura an surfac commonalities (Se Gentne an Markman 1997 an Medin Goldstone an Gentner 1993 fo reviews. Thi perspectiv sug gest a continuu o similarit types A on en lie abstrac analogy i whic th tw term shar onl a commo relationa system a i th matc betwee [hen and chick] an [mare and colt\. A mor commonalitie ar added th compariso become on o overal litera similarity a i th matc betwee [hen and chick] an [duck and duckling}. Ther i

evidenc tha man o th sam processe o structura alignmen an mappin describe fo analog als appl t overal similarit comparisons A i analogy commo system o connecte informatio becom mor salien i litera comparison an inference ar projecte usin a kin o structural-completio pro cess Analogica alignmen processe hav als bee extende t metaphor decisio making an categorization 11
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ANALOG Reference an recommende readin Forbus K D. Centner D an Law K 1995 MAC/FAC a mode o similarity-base retrieval Cognitive Science, 19 141-205 Gentner D 1983 Structure-mapping a theoretica framewor fo analogy

Cognitive Science, 7 155-70 Gentner D an Markman A B 1997 Structure-mappin i analog an similarity Amer- ican Psychologist. 52 45-56 Gentner D an Rattermann M J 1991 Languag an th caree o similarity I S A Gelma an J P Bryne (eds) Perspective o Thought and Language: Interrelations i Development. London Cambridg Universit Press 225-77. Gick M L an Holyoak K J 1983 Schem inductio an analogica transfer Cognitive Psy- chology, 15 1-38 'Goswami U 1992 Analogical Reasoning i Children. Hillsdale NJ Erlbaum Halford G S 1993 Children's Understanding: The Development o Mental Models. Hillsdale NJ 'Hesse M

B 1966 Models and Analogies i Science. Notr Dame Ind. Universit o Notr Dam Press Holyoak K J an Thagard P R 1989 Analogica mappin b constrain satisfaction Cognit- ive Science. 13 295-355 --- 1995 Mental Leaps: Analogy i Creative Thought. Cambridge Mass. MI Press Medin D L. Goldstone R L an Gentner D 1 9 3 Respect fo similarity Psychological Review, 100 254-78 Reeves L M an Weisberg R W 1994 Th rol o conten an abstrac informatio i ana logica transfer Psychological Bull 'in. 1 1 5 381-400 11