INTRODUCTION We are livi ng i an age of Informati on Technology

INTRODUCTION We are livi ng i an age of Informati on Technology - Description

Electroni cs is at t he very foundation of the Information and C mputer A ge The gi ant strides that w ha ve made in the areas of Communications and Computers are possible onl because of the great successes that we have achi eved in the field of Ele ID: 24103 Download Pdf

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INTRODUCTION We are livi ng i an age of Informati on Technology

Electroni cs is at t he very foundation of the Information and C mputer A ge The gi ant strides that w ha ve made in the areas of Communications and Computers are possible onl because of the great successes that we have achi eved in the field of Ele

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INTRODUCTION We are livi ng i an age of Informati on Technology




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INTRODUCTION We are livi ng i an age of Informati on Technology. Electroni cs is at t he very foundation of the Information and C mputer A ge. The gi ant strides that w ha ve made in the areas of Communications and Computers are possible onl because of the great successes that we have achi eved in the field of Electronics. is s meti mes unbelievabl e, how many el ectroni cs gadgets that we carry these days in our person Digital Wrist-watch, Calcul ator, Cell -phone, Digital D ary or a PDA, Digital Camera or a Video camera, etc. The di fferent types of Electronic equi pments

that has i vaded our office s an d h mes these d ys also mi nd boggling. Many things we use at home and office are “remote co ntrol ed”, for example, Televisi on (TV), Air-Conditi oners, A udi o equipment, Telephone, etc. It is al most cl ose to “ma ic even a chil d, now -a-days, can swit c hannels or inc ease dec ease the volume of sound in a TV at home by just clicking on a few buttons sitting at the co mfort of a sofa aw ay from the Tel visi on apparently without any physical wi ring or connecti on! Again, we are astonished, how we are abl e to talk to our near and dear livin g seve ral

thousan s of kilometers aw ay, from wherever we are, at home, offi ce, on the road a car, o i a classroo m y just clicki ng a few n umbers on our palm sized cell ular phones!
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Elec onic s has made deep impac in sever l v tal ar eas s ch as healt ca , medi cal diagnosis and treatment, Air and space travel s, Automobiles, etc. I short, the technologi cal devel pments of sever unt ies of he globe are dir ly r lat d t t eir s rengths in el ectronics desi gn manuf ur pr oducts and ser ices I appear as t ough we have t add inev it ably an t t e t e “R , n ly Reading, wRiting, and

aRithmatic, to declare a Man or Woman to be “l iterate”! Needless to ad d that the “E” here mea s “El ctro nics”! Thus Electronics has become surely a “B asic Sc ience”. It is no more an “appl ed science”. Just as we teach physi cs, c hemistry, biol ogy and ma thematics in our schools, it is high time we start teachi ng our chil dren at school, Elec tronics as a separate subject by itself. This brings us face to face to an important questi on : w to teach the basic concepts of such an important subject like Electroni cs most effectively? If one wants to gai n a good understanding of

electronics, he or she should bui ld circuits and test them independently. For this one s ou ld a qu ire a practical knowl dge of the characteri stics of different devices and onstructing the various circuits. Let us try to learn such skills by the proven scheme of “ LE ARNING BY DOING . An old C nese Proverb says: I Read - Forget I See - Reme mbe I Do - Unde tand There is only one way to learn to do a yth : JUST DO IT!
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LEARNI NG BY DOING That is the w y we a ll of u hav e nt ev en as a chi to talk, walk, rid a cy cle,etc.,.Ma y arts and speci l skills like danci g, singing

swi mming, and marti l arts are all l arnt by going to an expert or a teacher who makes us learn by doi ng rather than by list eni ng to lectures or readi ng books. Why “learning by doin g” is so important? Becaus e, whil e doing w tend to fa and fail ures are very important i the l arni ng process. On we f il we s art a yzi ng what went wrong. Thus at the point o failure a profound learning takes place. That is why people say: ILURES ARE STEPPING STO ES TO SUCCESS! In order to master the basic pr ci ples of electronics one ha s to study about the different components, circuits And measuring

instruments used in el ectronics. There are two types of components that we co me across namely Ac ti and Passive mponent Resistors, C pacitors,etc., are know n as passive components because they can only attenuate the elec ic al v lt age and s gnals And c nnot am plif W her eas dev ices lik t an st or ope ional am plif ier p Am p) can am plif or in crease the amplitude nd energy associ ated wit h t e signals Hence the transistors and OpAmp co me under active devices. These components can be combin ed i different confi urati ons by i terconnecting them with conducti ng wires to bui d diffe re

nt usefu Elec tronic ci rcu ts. We would h stu y ab t re ctifiers, amplifiers, Oscillators, etc ., under the category of circuits. Apart from the components and circuits we
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must also have famili arity on the prin ci pl e of operati ons and usefulness of Some of the essenti l el ectroni easuring ins ent s as digit l m lt imet ers regul ted pow r suppli es, Functi on generators, oscill oscopes, etc., T hese hel us in trouble shooti ng the circuits and i entif y the fa ty comp ents Whenever the circuits that we buil d do not w rk as expected. The di agram bel ow give s in a nut

shel l the above i eas the form of a flow di agram. BASIC ELECTRONICS COMPONENTS & DEVI CES PASSIVE: Resisto s, Cap citors, Diodes, Inductors, etc. ACTI VE: Transistors , Op.Amps, etc. Digital Multimeters ower suppli es oltage Sources & C rrent Sources scilloscopes unction Generators •Rectifie •Amplifi rs scillators ilters •E tc. MEASURING INSTRUMENTS CIRCUITS
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As a prerequisite for this cour se on basic Electronics, a knowle dge of general pri ci ples of electricity & magnetism is assumed. We will attempt here to learn Basic prin ciples of electronics by the scheme “L ea rn in

b Do ing . In this web based course, the pri ci pl es of operation of the different el ectronic devi me as ur ng instruments and ci rcui ts will be di scusse d and a set of si mul ted demonstrati n experiments are cl uded wherever possible for the learner to perform these si mpl experimen ts on his/her ow n and learn the concepts by “doing.” This will enable the learner to gain greater confidence at he end in the principles and working of el ectronic devices and ci rcuits. Before proceedi ng further, it is im portant to understand w the diffe rent c rcu ts can be b ilt a tested. Invariably a

“bread-board” i used i a laboratory for constructing the di fferent circuits and testi ng them. This is very useful si nc e her , w d n t h ve to sol the differ nt comp ts. Solder in g, a you know can be very time consumi ng. Further, we can reuse the co mponen aga in and again, s e they are not cut and soldered. Let us l arn below how we can use he br eadboar d f s ch applications.
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BREADBOARD For circuit preparat ion Power-lines or rail lines 5 holes node . 5 different points can be connec ted together
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Fig (c) Fig (a) Fig (b) The breadboard contains a number

of metal clips aligned beneat he array of ho les so that when we insert the l ad of a component (say , resistor) insi de a hol e, the clip gri s the l ad ti ghtly. Observe the figure. Fig(a) shows a metal cli before a component inserted, while Fig(b) shows after the lead inse rte . Fig(c) sh ows a cl ip which is beneath an array of 5-holes. All the five ho les co es t one node since all of them are connec d t oget er elec ic ally by th e m tal cl . T hat means up to 5 wires an be c onnec d t this s ngle node.
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SOLDERLESS BREADBOARD How t c ec t he br eadboar d f t is

arrangement of connectivity bel ow. We can do that simply by using a Di gita ultimeter DMM) an a co up le f wires. Ins rt th e wires into th two h betw w ich y want to heck the el ectrical conti ui ty. Use th e DMM i r sista ce mod and connect the two probes of the DMM to tw o strips of wires. If th e resistance show n is Zero then they are connected. If the DMM reads high resistance then the two poi ts are disconnected el ec trically (infinite re sistance or open).
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DIGITAL MULTIMETER A Multimeter is indeed a multipl meter. It an meas ure dc and ac voltages, currents and in

additi on resista ces!In some rece nt DMMs we ca measur e ev en f eque nc c pa citance, etc. Two long pr obes are us ed t connec t he DM t a c ui dur ing a meas em ent central dial knob i rotated to choose the parameter we wish to meas ure. When not in use w keep the knob in OFF positi n. ( See Figure). Click here to see the video
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PO WER SUPPLY For performing experiments we need a Power supply whic h can provide the necessary pow r to a tivate th circuits. The power supply we will be usin g here has the following outputs: 1. 0 to 30 V vari able DC Voltage, 1A max. The voltage

can be read on a digital di splay panel 2. -15 _ 0 _ +15 D al supply, 1.5 A max. 3. 5V Fixed Dc Voltage output, 3A max. Click here to see the video