1 INTRODUCTION In order that the investigators in different parts of the country and di fferent parts of world may compare the results of their experiments on a consistent basis it is necessary to establish certain standard units of length weight tim ID: 24950 Download Pdf

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1 INTRODUCTION In order that the investigators in different parts of the country and di fferent parts of world may compare the results of their experiments on a consistent basis it is necessary to establish certain standard units of length weight tim

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Standard of Measurements UNIT 1 STANDARD OF MEASUREMENT Structure Introduction Objectives Standards of Measurements and their Classification Primary Standard Secondary Standard Standard Unit of Length Standard Unit of Weight Standard Unit of Time Standard Unit of Temperature Stan dard Units of Luminous Intensity of a Source of Light Standard Unit of Amount of Substance Standard Unit of Electrical Quantities 10 Summary 11 Key Words 12 Answers to SAQs 1.1 INTRODUCTION In order that the investigators in different parts of the country and di fferent parts of world may compare the

results of their experiments on a consistent basis, it is necessary to establish certain standard units of length, weight, time, temperature and electrical, quantities. The National Bureau of Standards has the primary responsibility for maintaining these standard in the United States. In India, Indian Standard Institute (ISI), New Delhi has taken the responsibility for maintaining all the standard measurements. To monitor the standard of measurements, the same Institut e issues instructions to put ISI mark on measuring instruments and items so that these may be compared with non standard ones.

In the measurement system, the quantity to be measured, in the direct method, is compared directly against a standard of same kin d of quantity. The magnitude of quantity being measured is expressed in terms of a chosen unit for the standard and a numerical multiplier. A length can be measured in terms of meter and a numerical constant. Thus, a 10 meter length means a length ten time s greater than a meter. Thus, by the means of standard, it is possible to provide means of establishing and maintaining the magnitudes of the various units. The simplest kind of standard is a physical object

having desired property. This standard can be us ed as a basis of comparison. Objectives After studying this unit, you should be able to x understand the importance of standard in the measurement systems, x explain the sources and causes of errors in the measurements, and x perform the analysis of experimental data to find the accuracy, precision and the general validity of the experimental results.

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Metrology and Instrumentation 1.2 STANDARDS OF MEASUREMENTS AND THEIR CLASSIFICATION The standards of measurements are very useful for calibration of measuring instruments. They

help in minimizi ng the error in the measurement systems. On the basis of the accuracy of measurement the standards can be classified as primary standards and secondary standards. 1.2.1 Primary Standard A primary standard quantity will have only one value and it is fixed. An instrument which is used to measure the value of primary standard quantity is called primary standard instrument. It gives the accurate value of the quantity being measured. No pre calibration is required for this instrument. It is used to calibrate the instruments having less accuracy. By comparing the readings of the two

instruments, the accuracy of the second instrument can be determined. 1.2.2 Secondary Standard The value of the secondary standard quantity is less accurate than primary standard one. It is obtained by comparing with primary standard. For measurement of a quantity using secondary standard instrument, pre calibration is required. Without calibration, the result given by this instrument is meaningless. Calibration of a secondary standard is made by comparing the results with a primary standard instrument or with an instrument having high accuracy or with a known input source. In practical

fields, secondary standard instruments and devices are widely used. Using calibration charts, the erro r in the measurement of these devices can be reduced. STANDARD UNIT OF LENGTH The meter is considered as one of the fundamental unit upon which, through appropriate conversion factors, the English system of length is based. The SI unit of length in metre. The standard metre is defined as the length of a platinum iridium bar maintained at very accurate conditions at the International Bureau of Weights and Measures at Sevres, near Paris, France. All other metres had to be calibrated against the

metre. The co nversion factor for length for English and Metric systems in the United States is fixed by law as 1 meter = 39.37 inches Secondary standard of length is maintained at the National Bureau of Standards for calibration purposes. In 1960, the general confe rence on weights and measures defined the standard meter in terms of the wavelength of the orange red light of a krypton 86 lamp. The standard meter is thus 1 meter = 1,650,763.73 wavelengths of orange red light of Krypton 86 In 1982, the definition of th e meter was changed to the distance light travels in 1/299,792,458ths of a

second. For the measurement, light from a helium neon laser illuminates iodine which fluoresences at a highly stable frequency. In CGS system, the fundamental unit of length is cent imeter. Its conversion factors for other system are already mentioned above. The derived units for length are as follows : 1 m = 100 cm 1 km = 10 cm = 1000 m 1 mm = 10 m = 10 cm 1 centimeter = 10 2 1 decimeter = 10 1 1 decam eter = 10 m 1 hectometer = 10 m. We also have some other units, which are frequently used for short and large lengths.

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Standard of Measurements They are : 1 Fermi = 1 f = 10 15

1 Angstrom = 1 = 10 10 1 light year 15 9.46 10 m u distance that light travels in 1 year) Note : Velocity of light is 3 10 m/s u 1.4 STANDARD UNIT OF WEIGHT The kilogram is considered as fundamental unit upon which, through appropriate conversion factors, the English system of mass is based. The SI unit of mass is kilogram. The standard kilogram is defined in terms of platinum iridium mass maintained at very accurate conditions at the International Bureau of Weights and Measures in Sevres, France. The conversion factors for the English and Met ric systems in the United States are fixed by law

is 1 pound mass = 453.59237 grams = 0.45359237 kilogram Secondary standard of mass is maintained at the National Bureau of Standards for calibration purpose. In MKS and SI systems, fundamental un it of mass is kilogram, whereas in CGS system, the unit for the same is gram. The conversion factors for the above units and units derived from them are as follows : 1 kilogram = 1000 grams ; 1 gram = 10 kilogram 1 hectogram = 100 grams = 10 ki logram 1 decagram = 10 grams = 10 kilogram 1 milligram = 0.001 gram = 10 kilogram 1.5 STANDARD UNIT OF TIME The standard units of time are established in terms

of known frequencies of oscillation of certain devices. One of the simpliest devices is a pendulum. A torsional vibration system may also be used as a standard of frequency. The torsional system is widely used in clocks and watches. Ordinary 50 H line voltage may be used as a frequency standard under certain circumstances. An electric cl ocks uses this frequency as a standard because it operates from a synchronous electric motor whose speed depend on line frequency. A turning fork is a suitable frequency source, as are piezo electric crystals. Electronic oscillator may also be designed to

serve as very precise frequency sources. The SI unit of time is second. The fundamental unit of time, the second, has been defined in the past as 86400 of a mean solar day. The solar day is measured as the time interval between successive transits of the sun across a meridian of the earth. The time interval varies with location of the earth and time of the year, however, the mean solar day for one year is constant. The solar year is the time required for the earth to make one revolution aro und the sun. The mean solar year is 365 days 5 hr 48 min 48 s. 1.6 STANDARD UNIT OF TEMPERATURE An

absolute temperature scale was proposed by Lord Kelvin in 1854 and forms the basis for thermodynamic calculations. This absolute scale is so defined that par ticular meaning is given to the second law of thermodynamics when this temperature scale is used.

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Metrology and Instrumentation The International Practical Temperature Scale of 1968 furnishes an experimental basis for a temperature scale which approximates as closely as possible the a bsolute thermodynamic temperature scale. In the International Scale, 11 primary points are established as given in Table 1.1. Secondary

fixed points are also established as given in Table 1.2. In addition to the fixed points, precise points are also establ ished for inte rpolating between these points. Table 1.1 : Primary Points for the International Practical Temperature Scale of 1968 Point Normal Pressure = 14.6959 psia = 1.0132 u 10 Pa Temperature Triple point equilibrium hydrogen 259.34 434.8 Boiling point equilibrium hydrogen at 25/76 normal pressure 256.108 428.99 Normal boiling point (1 atm) of equilibrium hydrogen 252.87 423.17 Normal boiling point of Neon 246.048 410.89 Triple point of oxygen 218.789 361.82 Normal bo

iling point oxygen 182.962 297.33 Triple point of water 0.01 32.018 Normal boiling point of water 100 212.00 Normal freezing point of Zinc 419.58 787.24 Normal freezing point of silver 961.93 1763.47 Normal freezing point of gold 1064.43 1947.97 Table 1.2 : Secondary Fixed Points for the International Practical Temperature Scale of 1968 Point Temperature, Triple point, normal H 259.194 Boiling point, normal H 252.753 Triple point, Ne 248.595 Triple point, N 210.002 Boiling point , N 195.802 Sublimation point, CO (Normal) 78.476 Freezing point, Hg 38.862 Ice point Triple point phenoxibenzene

26.87 Triple point, benzoic acid 122.37 Freezing point, In 156.634 Freezing point, Bi 271.442 Freezing point, Cd 321.108 Fr eezing point, Pb 327.502 Freezing point, Hg 356.66 Freezing point, S 444.674 Freezing point, Cu AI Eutectic 548.23 Freezing point, Sb 630.74 Freezing point, AI 660.74 Freezing point, Cu 1084.5 Freezing point, Ni 1455 Freezing point, Co 1494 Freezi ng point, Pd 1554 Freezing point, Pt 1772 Freezing point, Rh 1963 Freezing point, Ir 2447 Freezing point, W 3387

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Standard of Measurements More recently, the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS 90) has

been adopted. The fixed points for ITS 90 that are differ only sli ghtly from IPTS 68. For ITS 90, a platinum resistance thermometer is used for interpolation between the triple point of hydrogen and the solid equilibrium for silver, while above, the silver point black body radiation is used for interpolation. Derived Uni ts The units of all other physical quantities can be expressed in terms of these base units. For example, we can express the unit of speed in metre per second, the unit of density in kilogram per cubic metre. Let us consider another physical quantity like

IRUFH)URP1HZWRQVVHFRQGODZRIPRWLRQIRUFHFDQEHGHILQHGDVWKH product of mass and acceleration. We can therefore take the unit of force as 1 kilogram u 1 metre/second . We call this by the name, Newton for convenience. The unit of energy is Newton metre. We call this by the name Joule. The unit of power is Joule per second. We call it Watt. The conversion factor for various units are 1 H.P = 746 watt (J/s) 1 H.P = 550 ft 1b/sec. 1 H.P = 75 kg m/sec. 1. STANDARD UNIT OF LUMINOUS

INTENSITY OF A SOUR CE OF LIGHT Candela is the SI unit of luminous intensity of a source of light in a specified direction. The candela is the luminous intensity of a black body of surface area 1/60,000 m placed at the temperature of freezing platinum and at a pressure of 10 1, 325 N/m , in the direction perpendicular to its surface. Now candela is redefined as the luminous intensity in a given direction of a source that emits monochromatic radiation of frequency 540 u 10 12 Hz and that has a radiant intensity in that direction of 1/683 watt per steradian. (SI unit of solid angle). 1. STANDARD

UNIT OF AMOUNT OF SUBSTANCE The mole (mol) is the SI unit of amount of substance. One mole is the amount of substance of a system that contains as many elementary entities as there are at oms in 0.012 kg of carbon 12. 1. STANDARD UNITS OF ELECTRICAL QUANTITIES The International conference on electrical units in London in 1908 confirmed the absolute system units adopted by the British Association Committee on Electrical Measurement in 186 3. This conference decided to specify some material standard which can be produced in isolated laboratories and used as International standards. The desired

properties of International standards are that they should have a definite value, be permanent, and be readily set up anywhere in the world, also that their magnitude should be within the range at which the most accurate measurements can be done. The four units ohm, ampere, volt and watt established by above specifications were known as Internationa l units. The ohm and ampere are primary standards. Definitions of Inte rnational unit are given below.

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10 Metrology and Instrumentation International Ohm The international ohm is the resistance offered to the passage of an

unvarying electric current at the temperature of melting ice by a c olumn of mercury of uniform cross section, 106.300 cm long and having mass of 14.4521 gm (i.e., about 1 sq. mm in cross section). International Ampere The international ampere is the unvarying current which when passed through a solution of silver nitrate in water deposits at the rate of 0.0001118 gm per second. The International Volt and Watt The international volt and watt defined in terms of International ohm and ampere. As constructing standards, which did not vary appreciably with time, was difficult nd also as, by 1930,

it was clear that the absolute ohm and ampere could be determined as accurately as the international units. The International committee on Weights and Measures decided in October, 1946 to abandon the international units and choose Janu ary 1, 1948 as the date for putting new units into effect. The change was made at appropriate time and the absolute system of electrical units is now in use as the system on which electrical measurements are based. SAQ 1 Why are standards necessary? What i s the difference between primary and secondary standards? The Universal gas constant has a value of 1545 ft

lbf/1bm mol R. By applying appropriate conversion factors, obtain its value in SI unit. Mention the fundamental SI units which are used in mechanic al system. What are the SI unit of the following : Temperature, ii Current, iii Luminous intensity of light, and iv Amount of substance. SAQ 2 The SI unit for heat generation is W/m . Derive a factor to convert to B t u/h ft Pressure is measured in unit lbf/ in the English system of units. Derive the factors to convert to units of N/m (Pa) and kgf One gallon equal 231 in . Derive a conversion factor to convert automobile fuel economy from

miles/gallon to kilometer/litre. Derive a factor to convert dens ity from g/cm to kg/m

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11 Standard of Measurements SAQ 3 Derive a factor to convert volume flow rate from cm /s to gal/min. How do you convert degree Kelvin to degrees Rankine? A unit for specific heat in the SI system is kJ/kg K. Derive a factor to convert it to B t u/1bm F an d to kcal/gm K. Derive a factor to convert flow rate lit/hr to m /sec. The thermal conductivity of a metal is 0.2 cal/cm C. Find its value in SI unit. 1.1 SUMMARY On the basis of the accuracy of measurement, the standard can be classified

into two ca tegories, viz. Primary standard and Secondary standard. The meter is considered as one of the fundamental units upon which, through appropriate conversion factors, the other systems of length are based. The kilogram is considered as fundamental unit upon w hich, through appropriate conversion factors, other systems of mass are based. The standard units of time are established in terms of known frequencies of oscillation of certain devices. The fundamental unit of time is second. Both Farenheit ( F) and Celsi us ( C) scales are widely used for measurement of temperature. The

absolute Farenheit scale is called Rankine ( R) scale and absolute Celsius has been designated as the Kelvin (K) scale. The relationship between these scales is as follows : K = C + 273.15 R = F + 459.67 In mechanical systems, the fundamental units in SI system are meter, Newton, kilogram mass, second, and joule. International units of electrical systems are ohm, ampere, volt and watt. The SI unit of luminous intensity of light is Candela (Cd) and the SI unit of amount of substance is mole (mol). 1.1 KEY WORDS Primary Standard Quantity It has only value and it is fixed. Secondary Standard

Quantity Its value is less accurate than primary standard quantity and it is obtained by comparin g with a primary standard. Standard Meter It is defined as the length of a platinum iridium bar maintained at very accurate conditions at the International Bureau of Weights and Measures in Sevres, France. Standard Kilogram It is defined in terms of a platinum iridium mass maintained at very accurate conditions at the International Bureau of Weights and Measures in Sevres, France.

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12 Metrology and Instrumentation Standard Units of Time These are established in terms of known

frequencies of certain devices. Absolute Temperature Scale It was proposed by Lord Kelvin in 1854 and forms the basis for thermodynamic calculations. 1.1 ANSWERS TO SAQs SAQ 1 The standards of measurements are very useful for calibration of measuring instruments. They help in minimizing errors in measurement sy stems. Primary standard quantity has only one value and it is fixed, whereas the value of the secondary standard quantity is less accurate than primary standard. 1545ft lbf/1bm mol. R 1545 0.1383 1.8 0.4536 uuu 848 m-kgf/kgm-mol.K Metre, N ewton, Kilogram, Second and Joule. (i) Kelvin,

ii Ampere, iii Candela, and iv Mole. SAQ 2 (a) 1 W/m 44.24 ft-pound/min.m 44.24 B.T.U./min.m 778 3.4118 B.T.U/h-ft 35.314 u = 0.0966 BTU/h ft (b) 1 Ibf/m 1 Ibf in 1550 u 11 N/m 1550 1.45 10 u u 4.45 N/m Ibf /inch 1550 14.42 kgf / cm 1550 32 9.174 10 kgf /cm u 9.174 10 kgf / m 10 u 9174 kgf /cm

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13 Standard of Measurements (c) 1 miles/gallons 1.609 km 231 in 33 6.965 10 km/in u 6.965 10 km / cm 0.0610 u 6.965 0.610 km/litre u 4.08 km/litre (d) 1 g / cm 3 3 3 10 kg/m 10 kg /m 10 SAQ 3 (a) 1 cm /s 10 litre / min. 60 60 10 0.2642 gallon / min. uu 0.0158 gallon / min. (b) K = C +

273.18 oo R = F + 459.67 oo F = C + 32.00 ? oo R = C + 32 459.67 273.18 + 32 + 459.67 = + 218.51 (c) = 1 kJ / kg K 1 10 = kcal/ gm K 4.2 u 3o = 0.238 10 kcal/gm K u 3o 3.968 10 1 = 0.238 10 Bt u / lbm F 2.205 33.8 u uuu = 0.01267 Bt u / lbm F (d) 1 lit/hr 1000 cm 3600 sec 1000 m /sec 10 3600 u 53 0.028 10 m /sec u

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14 Metrology and Instrumentation e) SI unit of thermal conductivity of a metal is W m K = 0.2 Cal s cm 1 cal of 4.2 Joules ? 1 J cal 4.2 Joule/sec = Watt 1 cm = 10 ? 0.2 10 Joule/sec-m-k 4.2 uu 4 1 1 4.76 10 W m k u

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