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Special Features of Authoring Systems-I Special Features of Authoring Systems-I

Special Features of Authoring Systems-I - PowerPoint Presentation

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Special Features of Authoring Systems-I - PPT Presentation

Lecturer Daniel Paa Korsah danielpaakorsahhotmailcom Learning Outcomes danielpaakorsahhotmailcom 61 Visual and ObjectOriented Paradigms 62 ObjectOriented Programming 621 What is a Class ID: 1005836

programming hotmail object danielpaakorsah hotmail programming danielpaakorsah object oriented class visual car objects language level data languages computer classes

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1. Special Features of Authoring Systems-ILecturer: Daniel Paa Korsahdanielpaakorsah@hotmail.com

2. Learning Outcomes:danielpaakorsah@hotmail.com6.1 Visual and Object-Oriented Paradigms6.2 Object-Oriented Programming6.2.1 What is a Class?6.2.2 What is an Object? 6.2.3 What is a Method? 6.3 Benefits of Object-Oriented Programming

3. Learning Outcomes:danielpaakorsah@hotmail.com6.4 Four Principles of Object-Oriented ProgrammingInheritanceEncapsulation AbstractionPolymorphism6.5. Visual and Object-Oriented Programming Environment

4. Visual and Object-Oriented Programming ParadigmsWhat is Computer Programming? danielpaakorsah@hotmail.com

5. Computer ProgrammingThe process that professionals use to write code (statements) that instructs how a computer, application or software program performsdanielpaakorsah@hotmail.comCode

6. What is a Programming Language? Computer programming languages are used to give instructions to a computer in a language the computer understands. Just as many human-based languages exist, there are an array of computer programming languages that programmers can use to create software. danielpaakorsah@hotmail.com

7. What is a Programming Language? The term programming language usually refers to high-level languages, such as BASIC, C, C++, COBOL, FORTRAN, Ada, Pascal, Visual Basic, VBA etc.danielpaakorsah@hotmail.com

8. Types of Programming LanguagesTwo main types – Low Level and High Level programming LanguagesA low-level language  contains basic instructions recognized by a computer.danielpaakorsah@hotmail.com

9. Low Level Languages include – Machine Language and Assembly Languagedanielpaakorsah@hotmail.comTypes of Programming Languages

10. High Level Programming LanguagesHigh-level languages are easier to understand by humans and are less complex than machine codedanielpaakorsah@hotmail.com

11. High and Low Level Languagesdanielpaakorsah@hotmail.com

12. Types of Programming LanguagesThere are several types of High Level Programming Languages: Procedural Programming Language Functional Programming LanguageScripting Programming LanguageVisual Programming LanguageObject-oriented Programming Language etc. danielpaakorsah@hotmail.com

13. Types of Programming LanguagesProcedural Programming Language – Uses procedures. Procedures simply contain a series of computational steps to be carried out.danielpaakorsah@hotmail.com

14. Types of Programming LanguagesFunctional Programming Language - functional programming is a programming paradigm where programs are constructed by applying and composing functions.danielpaakorsah@hotmail.com

15. Types of Programming LanguagesScripting Programming Language - Scripting languages are often used for short scripts over full computer programs. danielpaakorsah@hotmail.com

16. Visual Programming LanguagesVisual Programming Language - This type of language allows users to create programs by manipulating elements graphically rather than writing them in text format.danielpaakorsah@hotmail.com

17. Visual Programming Languagesdanielpaakorsah@hotmail.com

18. Visual Programming LanguagesA VPL allows programming with visual expressions, spatial arrangements of text and graphic symbols, used either as elements of syntax. danielpaakorsah@hotmail.com

19. Visual Programming LanguagesFor example, many VPLs (known as dataflow or diagrammatic programming) are based on the idea of "boxes and arrows", where boxes or other screen objects are treated as entities, connected by arrows, lines or arcs which represent relations.danielpaakorsah@hotmail.com

20. Visual Oriented Paradigmsdanielpaakorsah@hotmail.comScratch is an example of a Visual-Oriented Programming Language

21. Visual Programming LanguagesVisual programming environments provide graphical or iconic elements which can be manipulated by users in an interactive way according to some specific spatial grammar (shapes) for program construction.danielpaakorsah@hotmail.com

22. Object-Oriented Languages A programming model that organizes software design around data, or objects, rather than functions and logic. danielpaakorsah@hotmail.com

23. Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) It is a fundamental programming paradigm used by nearly every developer at some point in their career.danielpaakorsah@hotmail.com

24. Object-Oriented ProgrammingThere are many object-oriented programming languages including Visual Basic in Applications (VBA), C++ Java, and Python.danielpaakorsah@hotmail.com

25. Object-Oriented ProgrammingIt is used to structure a software program into simple, reusable pieces of code blueprints (usually called classes), which are used to create individual instances of objects. danielpaakorsah@hotmail.com

26. What is a Class? Class are a blueprint or a set of instructions to build a specific type of object.danielpaakorsah@hotmail.com

27. What is a Class? It is a basic concept of Object-Oriented Programming which revolve around the real-life entities. danielpaakorsah@hotmail.com

28. What is a Class? Classes determines how an object will behave and what the objects will contain.danielpaakorsah@hotmail.comObject

29. What is an Object? An object can be defined as a data field that has unique attributes and behavior.danielpaakorsah@hotmail.com

30. MethodsA method defines the behavior of the objects that are created from the class.danielpaakorsah@hotmail.com

31. Methoddanielpaakorsah@hotmail.com

32. More about Classes, Objects and Methodsdanielpaakorsah@hotmail.com

33. What is a Class?A class is a blueprint for an object to be created. A class itself does nothing but using classes you can create multiple identical objects that can perform operations or can be used as a data resource.danielpaakorsah@hotmail.com

34. What is a Class?In real life, the model (design and functionalities) of a car is a class and the car itself is an object of that class. In the class, we define what the car has in it and what it can do. For example, a car has 4 wheels, 5 gears, steering wheel, etc.danielpaakorsah@hotmail.com

35. What is an ObjectOften an "object" in a computer program tries to model a real world entity. For example a "car" could be modeled in a computer by information about the size, number of doors, engine, color, etc. of a car. danielpaakorsah@hotmail.com

36. What is a Method? A method in object-oriented programming is a procedure associated with a class. A method defines the behavior of the objects that are created from the class. Another way to say this is that a method is an action that an object is able to perform. danielpaakorsah@hotmail.com

37. MethodFor example: start_car() would "simulate" turning the engine on, break() would simulate slowing the car down, are methods for a car object.danielpaakorsah@hotmail.com

38. The interface between the car object and the rest of the program (or world) would be the putlic methods which are allowed on the car. For example, turn wheel left, turn wheel right, step on gas. We don't know (nor do we care) how these function work, just so long as the car does know and responds appropriately to each function call.danielpaakorsah@hotmail.com

39. What is a Method? For example, a Window object could have methods such as open and close, while its state (whether it is open or closed at any given point in time) would be a propertydanielpaakorsah@hotmail.com

40. danielpaakorsah@hotmail.com

41. danielpaakorsah@hotmail.com

42. Benefits of Object-Oriented Programming 1. Object-Oriented Programming models complex things as reproducible, simple structures2. Reusable, OOP objects can be used across programsdanielpaakorsah@hotmail.com

43. Benefits of Object-Oriented Programming 3. Allows for class-specific behavior through polymorphism4. Easier to debug, classes often contain all applicable information to them5. Secure, protects information through encapsulationdanielpaakorsah@hotmail.com

44. danielpaakorsah@hotmail.com

45. Four Pillars of Object-Oriented ProgrammingInheritanceEncapsulationAbstractionPolymorphism danielpaakorsah@hotmail.com

46. InheritanceChild classes inherit data and behaviors from parent classdanielpaakorsah@hotmail.com

47. InheritanceInheritance is a word that consists of the word “Inherit”, which means “To Derive”So, Inheritance is defined as the tendency of one class to derive properties and characteristics from other classesdanielpaakorsah@hotmail.com

48. How Does Inheritance make Working so Easy?with the help of inheritance, we need not create and define data members and functions repeatedly. We code once in a class, and they can inherit all properties of data members and functions in the subsequent subclass. This feature also helps in effective dynamic programming.danielpaakorsah@hotmail.com

49. EncapsulationContaining information in an object, exposing only selected information. danielpaakorsah@hotmail.com

50. Encapsulation Encapsulation is one of the fundamentals of OOP (object-oriented programming). It refers to the bundling of data with the methods that operate on that data. danielpaakorsah@hotmail.com

51. EncapsulationEncapsulation is used to hide the values or state of a structured data object inside a class, preventing unauthorized parties’ direct access to themdanielpaakorsah@hotmail.com

52. Encapsulation is a good idea for several reasonsEncapsulation is used to hide the values or state of a structured data object inside a class, preventing unauthorized parties’ direct access to them.Encapsulation means you should limit the access and visibility of a variable or function to as little as possibledanielpaakorsah@hotmail.com

53. PolymorphismPolymorphism: having multiple forms. Poly – many. Morphism - formsdanielpaakorsah@hotmail.com

54. PolymorphismMany methods can do the same task. Polymorphism refers to codes, operations or objects that behave differently in different contexts danielpaakorsah@hotmail.com

55. PolymorphismPolymorphism is the property of something having many forms. Polymorphism is the concept that different objects have different implementations of the same characteristic. For example, consider two objects, one representing a Porsche 911 and the other a Toyota Corolla. danielpaakorsah@hotmail.com

56. PolymorphismThey are both cars; that is, they both derive from the Car class, and they both have a drive method, but the implementations of the methods could be drastically different.danielpaakorsah@hotmail.com

57. PolymorphismPolymorphism sounds a great deal like encapsulation, but it is different. Encapsulation has to do with hiding the internal implementation of an object. Polymorphism has to do with multiple classes having the same interfacedanielpaakorsah@hotmail.com

58. Polymorphismdanielpaakorsah@hotmail.com

59. AbstractionOnly exposing high level public methods for accessing an objectdanielpaakorsah@hotmail.com

60. AbstractionAbstraction is one of the key concepts of object-oriented programming (OOP) languages. Its main goal is to handle complexity by hiding unnecessary details from the user. That enables the user to implement more complex logic on top of the provided abstraction without understanding or even thinking about all the hidden complexity.danielpaakorsah@hotmail.com

61. The benefits of abstraction are Simple, high level user interfacesComplex code is hiddenSecurityEasier software maintenanceCode updates rarely change abstractiondanielpaakorsah@hotmail.com

62. danielpaakorsah@hotmail.com