Determination of the enzyme ALT (

 Determination of the enzyme ALT (  Determination of the enzyme ALT ( - Start

2020-04-03 0K 0 0 0

Determination of the enzyme ALT ( - Description

SGPT) & AST . activity in serum by enzymatic method using . Biophotometer. ALT. Alanine aminotransferase (glutamate pyruvate transaminase) . belongs to the group of transaminases, . Catalyses . ID: 775052 Download Presentation

Download Presentation

Determination of the enzyme ALT (




Download Presentation - The PPT/PDF document " Determination of the enzyme ALT (" is the property of its rightful owner. Permission is granted to download and print the materials on this web site for personal, non-commercial use only, and to display it on your personal computer provided you do not modify the materials and that you retain all copyright notices contained in the materials. By downloading content from our website, you accept the terms of this agreement.



Presentations text content in Determination of the enzyme ALT (

Slide1

Determination of the enzyme ALT (

SGPT) & AST

activity in serum by enzymatic method using

Biophotometer

Slide2

ALT

Alanine aminotransferase (glutamate pyruvate transaminase)

belongs to the group of transaminases,

Catalyses

the conversion of amino acid to the corresponding α-keto acids

by the

transfer of amino groups;

Although

higher activities exist in the liver, minor activity can also be detected in the kidneys, heart, skeletal muscle, pancreas, spleen and lungs.

Elevated

serum ALT is found in hepatitis, cirrhosis, obstructive jaundice, carcinoma of the liver and chronic alcohol abuse.

ALT

is only slightly elevated in patients who have an uncomplicated myocardial infarction.

Although

, both serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and ALT found to be elevated whenever disease processes affect liver cell integrity,

ALT

is more liver specific enzyme. Moreover, elevations of ALT persist longer than elevations of AST activity.

Slide3

Slide4

Principle

Alanine aminotransferase (glutamate pyruvate transaminase) catalyses the reversible transfer of an amino group from alanine to α-ketoglutarate forming glutamate and pyruvate. The pyruvate produced is reduced to lactate by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and NADH.

The rate of decrease in concentration of NADH measured

photometrically at 340nm is proportional to the catalytic concentration of ALT present in the sample.

R1 (buffer)

Tris pH 7.8

100mmol/l

 

L-Alanine

500mmol/l

 

Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)

1200U/l

R2(substrate)

NADH

0.18mmol/l

 

α-ketoglutarate

15mmol/l

Slide5

AST

Aspartate aminotransferase (glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase) belongs to the group of transaminases

,

C

atalyse

the conversion of amino acids to the corresponding α-keto acids via the transfer of amino groups; they also

catalyze

the reverse process.

AST

is commonly found in human tissue. Although heart muscle is found to have the most activity of the enzyme, significant activity has also been seen in the brain, liver, gastric mucosa ,adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and kidneys.

AST

is present in both cytoplasm and mitochondria of cells. In cases with mild tissue injury, the predominant form of AST is that from the cytoplasm, with a smaller amount coming from the mitochondria.

Severe

tissue damage results in more of the mitochondrial enzyme being released.

Elevated

levels of transaminases are indicative of myocardial infarction

,

hepatopathies

, muscular dystrophy and damage to the internal organs

.

Increased levels of AST however are generally a result of viral or toxic hepatitis and obstructive jaundice. Following a myocardial infarction, serum levels of AST are elevated and reach a peak 48-60 hours after onset.

Slide6

Slide7

Significance

The blood test for aspartate aminotransferase (AST) is usually used to detect liver damage.

It is often ordered in conjunction with another liver enzyme, alanine aminotransferase (ALT)

AST and ALT are considered to be two of the most important tests to detect liver injury, although ALT is more specific for the liver than is AST and is more commonly increased than is AST.

Sometimes AST is compared directly to ALT and an AST/ALT ratio is calculated.

This ratio may be used to distinguish between different causes of liver damage and to distinguish liver injury from damage to heart or muscle.

Slide8

Ratio of AST and ALT can be useful in differentialALT is more specific for liver damage than ASTAST: ALT =1 Associated with ischaemia (CCF and ischaemic necrosis and hepatitis)AST: ALT >2.5 Associated with Alcoholic hepatitisAlcohol induced deficiency of pyridoxal phosphateAST: ALT <1 High rise in ALT specific for Hepatocellular damageParacetamol OD with hepatocellular necrosisViral hepatitis, ischaemic necrosis, toxic hepatitis

Ischaemia

:

an Inadequate blood supply to an organ or part of the body, especially the heart muscles.


About DocSlides
DocSlides allows users to easily upload and share presentations, PDF documents, and images.Share your documents with the world , watch,share and upload any time you want. How can you benefit from using DocSlides? DocSlides consists documents from individuals and organizations on topics ranging from technology and business to travel, health, and education. Find and search for what interests you, and learn from people and more. You can also download DocSlides to read or reference later.