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The focus of this research paper is to present the compositional histo
The focus of this research paper is to present the compositional histo

The focus of this research paper is to present the compositional histo - Description


stock characters8 The term itself refers to the Italian city Bergamo an important center of commedia dellarte Bergamo is the hometown ofthe Harlequin character a witty cowardly comic servant who is a ID: 871062 Download Pdf

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1 The focus of this research paper is to p
The focus of this research paper is to present the compositional history of Claude Debussy’s

2 Suite Bergamasque, to analyze all four
Suite Bergamasque, to analyze all four movements, with special attention to the music of “C

3 lair de Lune,” and to explore the works
lair de Lune,” and to explore the works of art and poetry that inspired it, as well as some

4 of the connections between the music, po
of the connections between the music, poetry, and art that influenced Debussy overall. stoc

5 k characters.8 The term itself refers to
k characters.8 The term itself refers to the Italian city Bergamo, an important center of co

6 mmedia dell’arte. Bergamo is the hometow
mmedia dell’arte. Bergamo is the hometown ofthe Harlequin character, a witty, cowardly comic

7 servant who is a standard figure in com
servant who is a standard figure in commedia dell’arte.9 All commedia dell’arte characters

8 had a distinctive costume, including a m
had a distinctive costume, including a mask and long nose. Their manner can be foolish or sl

9 y, and they hide their real feelings und
y, and they hide their real feelings under masks. The French 45$%,&6*7*2$%,!ME)("&P!=1&!$4"

10 1&!E(1&&H!9K@TV!99!W.%1('!L(01231+!.%/",
1&!E(1&&H!9K@TV!99!W.%1('!L(01231+!.%/",,0&*23&$8%&98%*$(%!MB)4%("231P!B)4%("231!X-"#1(&"'A!

11 E(1&&H!QUUTVH!9IT+!9Q!L(01231+ 14 At tha
E(1&&H!QUUTVH!9IT+!9Q!L(01231+ 14 At that time Debussy reorganized the suite to include thre

12 e pieces instead of four. When he change
e pieces instead of four. When he changed from four pieces to three, he also changed the nam

13 es of each work. The first work was call
es of each work. The first work was called “Masques,” the second Sarabande, and the last “L’

14 isle Joyeuse.”15 The final version was
isle Joyeuse.”15 The final version was published in 1905 by Fromont, as a collection of fo

15 ur works. !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
ur works. !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!9!=Y.-!S)00)&H!:7*"3%&.%/"

16 ,,01&8#,&7#;%&*23&=(&#x -3 ;,H!'()-&0)'1
,,01&8#,&7#;%&*23&=(&#x -3 ;,H!'()-&0)'12!%A!Z)"(1!)-2![()*1!LD;("1-!M=.-2.-P!L\6.(2!X-"#1(&

17 "'A!E(1&&H!9TVH!JI+!9I!S)00)&H!:7*"3%&.%
"'A!E(1&&H!9TVH!JI+!9I!S)00)&H!:7*"3%&.%/",,01&8#,&7#;%&*23&=(&#x -3 ;,H!JI+!9R!S)00)&H!:7*"

18 3%&.%/",,01&8#,&7#;%&*23&=(&#x -3 ;,H!JI
3%&.%/",,01&8#,&7#;%&*23&=(&#x -3 ;,H!JI+! published , as shown in Figure 1 below, mm.33-34,

19 in the middle voice; he also used the w
in the middle voice; he also used the whole-tone pattern in the second movement, Menuet. Th

20 e use of the whole-tone scale affects th
e use of the whole-tone scale affects the overall sound of the piece, since it lacks a tonal

21 center and does not have the strong fee
center and does not have the strong feeling of resolution found in the major and minor key

22 system. Other types of scales and harmon
system. Other types of scales and harmonies are used as well. In the Prelude, as shown in Fi

23 gure 2 below, measure 12, Debussy uses a
gure 2 below, measure 12, Debussy uses a pentatonic scale in the soprano line in a chorale t

24 exture; he also uses the F augmented cho
exture; he also uses the F augmented chord at the end of measure 12 in Prelude. In the Passe

25 pied, as shown in Figure 3 below, measur
pied, as shown in Figure 3 below, measure 147, Debussy uses Dorian mode in the coda in this

26 section. Debussy also uses 7th, 9th and
section. Debussy also uses 7th, 9th and 11th chords in the Clair de Lune. !Figure 1. Debuss

27 y, Prelude, mm. 32 passage in F major at
y, Prelude, mm. 32 passage in F major at m. 2, marked “tempo rubato” to capture the feelings

28 of spontaneous performance. In the Prel
of spontaneous performance. In the Prelude, as shown in figure 7 below, mm.1-6, references

29 the baroque arabesque style.20 Arabesque
the baroque arabesque style.20 Arabesque style is an ornamental shape found in Suite in A M

30 inor, mm. 1-6 Q9!Lederer, Debussy: The
inor, mm. 1-6 Q9!Lederer, Debussy: The Quiet Revolutionary, 37. ! measureDebussy uses paral

31 lel fifths the end of measure 12. Debuss
lel fifths the end of measure 12. Debussy also uses an F augmented chord at the end of measu

32 re 12.!Figure 9. Debussy, Prelude, mm. 1
re 12.!Figure 9. Debussy, Prelude, mm. 10-12 Figure !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

33 !!! , mm. 1-3 !Figure 14. Debussy, Menue
!!! , mm. 1-3 !Figure 14. Debussy, Menuet, mm. 28-30 , mm. 18-21 !Figure 17. Debussy, Me

34 nuet, mm. 22-24 theme comes back in the
nuet, mm. 22-24 theme comes back in the last few measures of the A section, mm.44-49, and s

35 uddenly changes, using dramatic and expr
uddenly changes, using dramatic and expressive long passages. In the Menuet, as shown in Fig

36 ure 18 below, mm. 43-51, Debussy actuall
ure 18 below, mm. 43-51, Debussy actually used Clair de Lune, mm. 1-3 The softer dyna

37 mics include a rising three-note motive
mics include a rising three-note motive in the melody in the B section, as shown in figure 2

38 5, accompanied by flowing sixteenth note
5, accompanied by flowing sixteenth notes. The rising motion creates great intensity. !Figur

39 e 25. Debussy, Clair de Lune, mm. 27-28
e 25. Debussy, Clair de Lune, mm. 27-28 QR!Lederer, Debussy: The Quiet Revolutionary, 38.!

40 epied, mm. 40-47 turns to the simple an
epied, mm. 40-47 turns to the simple and peaceful style. the lyrical character. For exampl

41 e, in the Passepied, as shown in figure
e, in the Passepied, as shown in figure 45 below, mm. 40-47, Debussy marks cédez un peu to l

42 et the pianist gradually slow down, and
et the pianist gradually slow down, and then back to tempo in measure 44. Figure lyrical me

43 lody. The use of the damper pedal in Pas
lody. The use of the damper pedal in Passepied is very challenging. The pianist needs use ha

44 lf pedal to keep the relatively dry sono
lf pedal to keep the relatively dry sonority in the left hand accompaniment clear, while the

45 melody needs to be played legato. For e
melody needs to be played legato. For example, in mm. 24-31, as shown in figure 46 below,

46 the final stanza with “Au calme clair de
the final stanza with “Au calme clair de lune triste et beau” (in the calm moonlight, sad an

47 d beautiful).29 Debussy associates these
d beautiful).29 Debussy associates these three adjectives in his music by utilizing a modera

48 tely slow tempo, a melodic pattern with
tely slow tempo, a melodic pattern with descending thirds and sighing featuring charming na

49 ture scenes with an element of mystery.3
ture scenes with an element of mystery.31 In the first stanza of Verlaine’s “Clair de Lune,”

50 he depicts people hiding their sad feel
he depicts people hiding their sad feelings beneath their masks as “Tristes sous leurs dégu

51 isements fantasques!”32 The lonely perso
isements fantasques!”32 The lonely person is trying to B.("--1!L(21D&!'()-&0)'".-!.6!E)"0!S

52 1(0)"-1D&!E(.41-)21!?1-'"41-')01+!7'!"&!
1(0)"-1D&!E(.41-)21!?1-'"41-')01+!7'!"&!)#)"0)%01!.-0"-1!)'!'G1!="121(N1'!$(*G"1#1H! of harm

53 onic and melodic writing, utilizing Vall
onic and melodic writing, utilizing Vallas, Leon. 1933. Claude Debussy, his life and works.

54 Translated by Maire and Grace O’Brien. L
Translated by Maire and Grace O’Brien. London: Oxford University Press. Paul Verlaine. 1869

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