Biotechnology of GMOs: Genetically Modified Organisms

Biotechnology of GMOs: Genetically Modified Organisms Biotechnology of GMOs: Genetically Modified Organisms - Start

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Biotechnology of GMOs: Genetically Modified Organisms - Description

How can we use our understanding of DNA, genomes, and gene expression to help solve issues in the world? . To what extent SHOULD we apply this knowledge into action?. Universality of the Genetic Code. ID: 542087 Download Presentation

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Biotechnology of GMOs: Genetically Modified Organisms




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Presentations text content in Biotechnology of GMOs: Genetically Modified Organisms

Slide1

Biotechnology of GMOs: Genetically Modified Organisms

How can we use our understanding of DNA, genomes, and gene expression to help solve issues in the world?

To what extent SHOULD we apply this knowledge into action?

Slide2

Universality of the Genetic Code

http://education.seattlepi.com/humans-bacteria-share-common-genetic-codes-4511.html

Slide3

Same Gene, Different Organism

https://vimeo.com/179820030

Slide4

Are GMOs “good” or “bad”?

Slide5

Basic Steps of Gene Transfer

1) Isolate gene and vector

A vector is a DNA molecule that can be used to carry the gene of interest to foreign cell

Plasmids are commonly used as vectors (viruses are also used)

2) Digestion of gene and vector by restriction enzymes

Restriction enzymes (also called restriction nucleases) cut out genes of interest, and also cleave vectors to accept foreign genes

3) Ligation of gene and vector

DNA ligase splices gene and vector to form recombinant plasmid

4) Selection and expression of transgenic construct

Recombinant plasmid with newly inserted DNA is inserted into host genome – host will now express inserted gene(s).

Slide6

1a)

1b)

2a)

2b)

3)

4)

Slide7

Restriction Enzymes (Nucleases) Make Genetic Engineering Possible – discovered late 1960s

Nature Link: http://www.nature.com/scitable/spotlight/restriction-enzymes-18458113

“Sticky ends” are complimentary, so can be “re-sealed” by ligase

Slide8

Gene Transfer through direct uptake of DNA

Slide9

How are bacterial genes transferred to plant genomes?

Slide10

How are viruses used for gene therapy?

Slide11

Bacterial Transformation

: inserting non-bacterial genes into bacteria

Slide12

Extra Links:

Do Humans and Bacteria Share Common Genetic Material:

http://education.seattlepi.com/humans-bacteria-share-common-genetic-codes-4511.html

Wings on a Human?

http://genetics.thetech.org/ask/ask357

Is it possible to create a designer baby?

http://genetics.thetech.org/ask/ask140

Slide13

What are the potential risks and benefits of GMOs?

Benefits

Higher crop yields and more foodLess land needed for crop rotation and could be used for conservation effortsLess use of insecticide sprays; health and financial benefits Increased vitamin content, decreased allergen or toxin content, resistance to virus diseases, drought tolerance, etc.

Risks

Non-pest insects could be killed

Consequences of GMO pollen transferring to other crops and organisms that feed on those crops

Toxins from litter could harm decomposers

Cross pollination with other plants in the wild could transfer genes

Pests may develop resistance to genetically modified toxin

Slide14

What are the potential benefits and risks of GMOs?

Slide15

Slide16

Slide17

GMO Salmon

7 Questions to Ask:

http://time.com/4120648/fda-approved-aquabounty-gmo-salmon/ GMO Salmon Approved: http://www.nytimes.com/2015/11/20/business/genetically-engineered-salmon-approved-for-consumption.html?_r=0 GMO Salmon Banned: https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/to-your-health/wp/2016/01/29/fda-bans-imports-of-genetically-engineered-salmon-for-now/

Slide18

Clones & Cloning

Clones

: groups of genetically identical organisms OR a group of cells derived from a single original parent cell

Cloning multicellular organisms requires the production of

stem cells

(

differentiated cells

cannot form other types of cells)

Stem cells

are unspecialized cells that can continuously reproduce AND have the capacity to differentiate

Natural cloning

occurs in asexual organisms (Ex: Bacteria), twins, and some plant species

Artificial cloning

is done through the artificial production of stem cells from already differentiated cells

Slide19

Somatic-Cell Nuclear Transfer: Cloning Adult Animals Using Differentiated Cells

(Differentiated cells)

Stem Cells Link:

http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/stemcells/scintro/

Slide20

Cloning Via Embryonic Division


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