Marshes & Swamps
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Marshes & Swamps

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Marshes & Swamps

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Marshes & Swamps

Louiza (Looza) Wise, Sam (Swaggin) Manno, Andi (Awesome) Kasper


Largest swamps/marshes: Llanos de Moxos in South America and Florida Everglades


Physical Characteristics


water levels change constantly

shallow enough for plants to grow (depth: few inches - 1 or 2 feet)

dominated by aquatic plants (grass, water lilies, duckweed)

fresh and saltwater

very diverse habitat (fresh) / nutrient rich soils

water temp: fresh - 56 to 76 degrees, salt - 46 to 61 degrees

recharge: provides water to streams and vice versa - clean polluted waters


dominated by trees/shrubs

fresh, brackish (somewhat salty), seawater

nutrient rich soils

depth: 1 to 2 feet

water temp: 55 - 73 degrees

recharge: same as marshes - act as flood controllers



Water quality improvements by filtering out pollutants before they reach the riverFood and habitat for fish and wildlifeFlood control and shoreline erosion controlAct as a giant sponge by absorbing excess waterProvide breeding grounds, protection, food, comfort, a home


Autotrophs, Heterotrophs and Decomposers

Autotrophs: Duckweed, arrow grass and cattailsHeterotrophs: Beavers, otters, and muskratsDecomposers: Bacteria, fungi, amphipods


Endangered Animals

About 43% of the nations endangered and threatened species rely directly or indirectly on wetlands for survival.


General Trends

Most wetlands are located in the temperate zone (halfway between the poles and the equator)

On average 18°F - 86°F

60-200 inches of rainfall yearly

Animals adaptations


Webbed feet or paddle like legs

Plant adaptations

Float (for photosynthesis)

Can get oxygen through root (like a snorkel)


Environmental Status

Decreasing area

Protection measures, elimination

of some incentives for wetland drainage

Suffered degradation

Causes are i

ncrease in flood damages, drought damages, and the declining bird populations

There are several preservations and efforts to create new wetlands



Current problemsAir and water pollutants, runoff contamination, overfishing, tourism, construction of dams, invasive species, and moreFuture problemsIncreasing temperature, chemical and sediment contamination, continuing loss of land, loss of natural animal occupation, and more


Groups Trying to Help

World Wildlife Foundation

: WWF is working to preserve and restore wetlands. They have helped designate more than 2,000 wetlands world-wide as Wetlands of International Importance which means it is protected from pollution, drainage and development.

Government Regulations:

Swampbuster, part of Food Security Act, prevents farmers who convert or modify wetlands from receiving federal farm program benefits.

Association of State Wetland Managers

: Uses scientific research to help public and private decision-makers map, assess, regulate, and restore wetlands and also provides up-to-date wetland news.



Environment 6th edition

by Peter H. Raven, Linda R. Berg and David M. Hassenzahl.

Earth Gauge RSS

. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Sept. 2014.

"Vermont Wetlands Section - Wetlands Threatened & Endangered Species Habitat."

Vermont Wetlands Section - Wetlands Threatened & Endangered Species Habitat

. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Sept. 2014.

. World Wildlife Fund, n.d. Web. 14 Sept. 2014.

"Private Organizations."


. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Sept. 2014.



. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Sept. 2014.



. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Sept. 2014.