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Presentation on theme: "Marshes & Swamps"— Presentation transcript:
Marshes & Swamps
Louiza (Looza) Wise, Sam (Swaggin) Manno, Andi (Awesome) Kasper
Largest swamps/marshes: Llanos de Moxos in South America and Florida Everglades
water levels change constantly
shallow enough for plants to grow (depth: few inches - 1 or 2 feet)
dominated by aquatic plants (grass, water lilies, duckweed)
fresh and saltwater
very diverse habitat (fresh) / nutrient rich soils
water temp: fresh - 56 to 76 degrees, salt - 46 to 61 degrees
recharge: provides water to streams and vice versa - clean polluted waters
dominated by trees/shrubs
fresh, brackish (somewhat salty), seawater
nutrient rich soils
depth: 1 to 2 feet
water temp: 55 - 73 degrees
recharge: same as marshes - act as flood controllers
Water quality improvements by filtering out pollutants before they reach the riverFood and habitat for fish and wildlifeFlood control and shoreline erosion controlAct as a giant sponge by absorbing excess waterProvide breeding grounds, protection, food, comfort, a home
Autotrophs, Heterotrophs and Decomposers
Autotrophs: Duckweed, arrow grass and cattailsHeterotrophs: Beavers, otters, and muskratsDecomposers: Bacteria, fungi, amphipods
About 43% of the nations endangered and threatened species rely directly or indirectly on wetlands for survival.
Most wetlands are located in the temperate zone (halfway between the poles and the equator)
On average 18°F - 86°F
60-200 inches of rainfall yearly
Webbed feet or paddle like legs
Float (for photosynthesis)
Can get oxygen through root (like a snorkel)
Protection measures, elimination
of some incentives for wetland drainage
Causes are i
ncrease in flood damages, drought damages, and the declining bird populations
There are several preservations and efforts to create new wetlands
Current problemsAir and water pollutants, runoff contamination, overfishing, tourism, construction of dams, invasive species, and moreFuture problemsIncreasing temperature, chemical and sediment contamination, continuing loss of land, loss of natural animal occupation, and more
Groups Trying to Help
World Wildlife Foundation
: WWF is working to preserve and restore wetlands. They have helped designate more than 2,000 wetlands world-wide as Wetlands of International Importance which means it is protected from pollution, drainage and development.
Swampbuster, part of Food Security Act, prevents farmers who convert or modify wetlands from receiving federal farm program benefits.
Association of State Wetland Managers
: Uses scientific research to help public and private decision-makers map, assess, regulate, and restore wetlands and also provides up-to-date wetland news.
Environment 6th edition
by Peter H. Raven, Linda R. Berg and David M. Hassenzahl.
Earth Gauge RSS
. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Sept. 2014.
"Vermont Wetlands Section - Wetlands Threatened & Endangered Species Habitat."
Vermont Wetlands Section - Wetlands Threatened & Endangered Species Habitat