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Satellite Communication Kazi

. Zakia. Sultana. Components. A microwave repeater in the sky consisting of transmitter, receiver, amplifier, regenerator, . mux. , . demux. , antenna, and so on.. Space segment. The transponder. Earth segment.

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Satellite Communication Kazi






Presentation on theme: "Satellite Communication Kazi"— Presentation transcript:

Slide1

Satellite Communication

Kazi

Zakia

Sultana

Slide2

Components

A microwave repeater in the sky consisting of transmitter, receiver, amplifier, regenerator,

mux

,

demux

, antenna, and so on.

Space segment

The transponder

Earth segment

The Ground Station

Transmitting station

Receiving station

An interface between space and earth segment for transmission and reception of terrestrial communication traffic

Slide3

History

In 1962, the American telecommunications giant AT&T launched the world's first true communications satellite, called Telstar.

Since then, countless communications satellites have been placed into earth orbit, and the technology being applied to them is forever growing in sophistication.

Slide4

How do Satellites Work

Two Stations on Earth want to communicate through radio broadcast but are too far away to use conventional means.

The two stations can use a satellite as a relay station for their communication

One

Earth Station

sends a transmission to the satellite. This is called a

Uplink

.

The satellite

Transponder

converts the signal and sends it down to the second earth station. This is called a

Downlink

.

Slide5

Basics:

Advantages:

The

coverage area of a satellite greatly exceeds that of a terrestrial system.

Transmission cost of a satellite is independent of the distance from the center of the coverage area.

Satellite to Satellite communication is very precise.

Higher Bandwidths are available for use

.

Disadvantages:

Launching satellites into orbit is costly.

Satellite bandwidth is gradually becoming used up.

There is a larger propagation delay in satellite communication than in terrestrial communication.

Slide6

Kepler’s Law

The path of the planets about the sun is elliptical in shape, with the center of the sun being located at one focus. (The Law of Ellipses) (Figure 14-1 a)

An imaginary line drawn from the center of the sun to the center of the planet will sweep out equal areas in equal intervals of time. (The Law of Equal Areas) (Figure 14-1 b)

The ratio of the squares of the periods of any two planets is equal to the ratio of the cubes of their average distances from the sun. (The Law of Harmonies)

Slide7

Slide8

Third Law

Planet

Period

(s)

Average

Dist. (m)

T

2

/R

3

(s

2

/m

3

)

Earth

3.156 x 10

7

s

1.4957 x 10

11

2.977 x 10

-19

Mars

5.93 x 10

7

 s

2.278 x 10

11

2.975 x 10

-19

Slide9

ProGrade

Orbit

Satellite orbits at the same direction of the earth’s and at more angular speed than earth’s.

Retrograde Orbit

Satellite orbits at the opposite direction of the earth’s and at less angular speed than earth’s.

Slide10

Types of Satellites

Satellite Orbits

GEO

LEO

MEO

Slide11

Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO)

These satellites are in orbit 35,863 km above the earth’s surface along the equator.

Objects in Geostationary orbit revolve around the earth at the same speed as the earth rotates. This means GEO satellites remain in the same position relative to the surface of earth.

Slide12

Advantages

A GEO satellite’s distance from earth gives it a large coverage area, almost a fourth of the earth’s surface.

No expensive tracking equipment is required

These factors make it ideal for satellite broadcast and other multipoint applications.

Disadvantages

A GEO satellite’s distance also cause it to have both a comparatively weak signal and a time delay in the signal, which is bad for point to point communication.

GEO satellites, centered above the equator, have difficulty broadcasting signals to near polar regions

Require higher transmit power and sensitive receivers

High precision

spacemanship

is required to place

Slide13

Low Earth Orbit (LEO)

LEO satellites are much closer to the earth than GEO satellites, ranging from 500 to 1,500 km above the surface.

LEO satellites don’t stay in fixed position relative to the

surface.

Slide14

LEO (cont.)

Advantages

A LEO satellite’s proximity to earth compared to a GEO satellite gives it a better signal strength and less of a time delay, which makes it better for point to point communication.

Disadvantages

Relatively costly

Atmospheric drag effects LEO satellites, causing gradual orbital deterioration.

Slide15

Medium Earth Orbit (MEO)

A MEO satellite is in orbit somewhere between 8,000 km and 18,000 km above the earth’s surface.

MEO satellites are similar to LEO satellites in functionality.

MEO satellites are visible for much longer periods of time than LEO satellites, usually between 2 to 8 hours.

MEO satellites have a larger coverage area than LEO satellites.

Slide16

MEO (cont.)

Advantage

A MEO satellite’s longer duration of visibility

fewer

satellites are needed in a MEO network than a LEO network.

Disadvantage

A MEO satellite’s distance gives it a longer time delay and weaker signal than a LEO satellite, though not as bad as a GEO satellite.

Slide17

Several Terms

Ascending Node

Descending Node

Line of Nodes

Orbits

Inclined

Equatorial

Angle of inclination is 0

No ascending or descending node

No line of nodes

Polar

Angle of inclination is 90

100% coverage area

Slide18

Slide19

Basics: Factors in satellite communication

Elevation Angle: The angle of the horizontal of the earth surface to the center line of the satellite transmission beam.

This effects the satellites coverage area. Ideally, you want a elevation angle of 0 degrees, so the transmission beam reaches the horizon visible to the satellite in all directions.

However, because of environmental factors like objects blocking the transmission, atmospheric attenuation, and the earth electrical background noise, there is a minimum elevation angle of earth stations.

Coverage Angle: A measure of the portion of the earth surface visible to a satellite taking the minimum elevation angle into account.

Slide20

Geosynchronous Satellites

No special antenna tracking equipment is

necessary

Completes one revolution around the earth in 24 hours

Orbits are circular, so speed of rotation is constant throughout the orbit

Follow equatorial orbit, angle of inclination must be 0

Same angular speed and same direction as that of the earth

Orbital Velocity