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J.S. Mill, PowerPoint Presentation, PPT - DocSlides

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Utilitarianism. (1863). PHIL 102, UBC. Summer 2015. Christina Hendricks. Except . parts noted otherwise. , this presentation . is licensed . CC-BY 4.0. John Stuart Mill. (1806-1873, England). Mill “had a lifelong goal of reforming the world in the interest of human well-being” . ID: 482638

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Slide1

J.S. Mill, Utilitarianism (1863)

PHIL 102, UBCSummer 2015Christina Hendricks

Except parts noted otherwise, this presentation is licensed CC-BY 4.0

Slide2

John Stuart Mill(1806-1873, England)

Mill “had a lifelong goal of reforming the world in the interest of human well-being”

http

://plato.stanford.edu/entries/mill/

Slide3

When asking what is right/wrong morally, what to evaluate?

Person

Action

Consequences

IntentionMotiveHabitual disposition to act in some ways

What kind of act is it?What was actually done?

What results from the action?

Slide4

Consequentialism

“whether

an act is morally right depends only on

consequences

(as opposed to the

…intrinsic

nature of the act or anything that happens before the act).”

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy on consequentialism:

http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/consequentialism/#ClaUti

Slide5

Hedonistic consequentialism

Value hedonism:

all and only pleasure is intrinsically valuable and all and only pain is intrinsically

disvaluable

.”

-- Internet Encycl. of Philo:

http://www.iep.utm.edu/hedonism/#SH1b

Hedonistic consequentialism:

determine the moral value of consequences, and therefore of acts, by how much pleasure/pain produced

Slide6

Some moral scenarios

http://is.gd/PHIL102Mill

A few different moral scenarios, to encourage you to think about what might be needed to say an action is morally right or wrong…

Slide7

Utilitarianism, Chpt 1

“There ought either to be some one fundamental principle or law, at the root of all morality, or if there be several, there should be a determinate order of precedence among them…”

(1).

Why?

What is that principle, for Mill?

Slide8

Simplified overview of Mill’s Utilitarianism

We can judge the moral value of actions by the degree of happiness they tend to produce for the sentient creatures involved

Slide9

Greatest Happiness Principle

“actions are [morally] right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness, [morally] wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of happiness” (2

).

“happiness”

is defined in terms of pleasure and reduction or absence of pain

Slide10

Support for GHP (more in Chpt. IV)

“pleasure, and freedom from pain, are the only things desirable as ends” (2)Mill on the highest good (5)The “end of human action is necessarily also the standard of morality” (5)

Pleasure, reduction of pain

(self & others)

Slide11

Pleasure as only intrinsic value (p. 2, & Chpt 4)

Use happiness, defined in terms of pleasure, to evaluate consequences of acts

Judge acts with Greatest Happiness Principle (GHP)

Actual consequences the act had?

What was intended as consequence?

Usual consequences for this kind of act?

Slide12

Consequences for whom?

Sentient beings (5)Not the whole world for all actions (6)

Impartiality (5)

Slide13

Different kinds of pleasures

Mill distinguishes between different kinds of pleasures: what kinds, and why does he make this distinction?

Slide14

How do we know pleasures differ in kind, not just quantity? (3-4)

Even if you could get the sensual pleasures nearly or fully satisfied, a life with the capacity for intellectual pleasures but with less of them would still be preferable.

Sensual only (pig and fool)

Sensual & intellectual (human & Socrates)

Slide15

Role of motive

Motive doesn’t matter

to the morality of actions (6)

Still, we should try to get people to want to promote general happiness (5-6)

Slide16

Do we have to calculate consequences each time we act?

No; we can use “

subordinate principles

” from the “fundamental principle” (GHP) (9)

These are drawn from human experience of which kinds of actions tend to promote more/less pleasure & pain (8)

Slide17

Pleasure as only intrinsic value

Use happiness, defined in terms of pleasure, to evaluate conseq. of acts

Greatest Happiness Principle (GHP)

Subordinate principles (moral rules) (8-9)

Act R/W?

Act R/W?

Act R/W?

Act R/W?

GHP used to determine subordinate rules, decide between them if they conflict re: an action

Slide18

Chpt V: Utilitarianism & Justice

Two questions addressed here:What differentiates justice from the rest of morality?

2. Would utilitarianism allow people to act unjustly if that would promote more happiness in a group overall?

Slide19

Question 1: Moral categories

Morally obligatory/requiredWhat must be done

Morally permissible/optionalWhat can be done

Morally prohibitedWhat must not be done

Supererogatory

praiseworthy but optional

Slide20

What promotes general happiness, andWhat people should be compelled to do or avoid (19)How decide what actions should be compelled?

What promotes happiness, but people should not be compelled to do or avoid (19)Though we can try to persuade Examples?

Morality/duty

Prudence/expedience

Slide21

Morality

Duties of perfect obligation (20)Connected to one or more rights How determine what counts as a right?Justice/rights focus on security: “the most vital of all interests” (21)

Duties of imperfect obligation (20)Not connected to rightsExample: generosity

Justice

Rest of morality

Slide22

Must we maximize happiness?

For Mill, is it morally required to produce as much happiness as possible, in all actions?

No, according to other writings

See also p. 20

Slide23

Refined way of defining acts as morally right/wrong

What produces general happiness (GHP)

What we should compel people to do or avoid

MORALITY

Slide24

Question 2:

Would utilitarianism allow people to act unjustly if that would promote more happiness in a group overall

?

How would Mill respond, and why?

Slide25

Still…

Are there exceptions to rules of justice?Yes and no… (22)

Slide26

Act vs Rule utilitarianism

A distinction that didn’t exist when Mill was writing

AU:

moral value of acts judged by utility of consequences of those (kinds of) acts

RU:

moral value of acts judged by whether they follow rules; rules judged by utility of their consequences if generally accepted and/or followed

Slide27

Act utilitarianism

Rule utilitarianism

Principle of utility (e.g., Mill’s GHP)

Act R/W?

Principle of utility (e.g., Mill’s GHP)

Act R/W?

Act R/W?

Rules with high acceptance and/or obedience utility

Act R/W?

Act R/W?

Act R/W?

Where does Mill’s view fit?

Slide28

Slide29

Slide30


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