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Large Truck and Trailer Incident Response Review 2015

Presented by: Camano Island Fire & RescueCited Resource: Randy Schmitz FDIC 2015Slide2

Class OutlineEquipment we have vs. what we need

Big Rig Anatomy and Extrication IdeasSchool Buses and Transit Buses ReviewSlide3

Big Rig Rescue - Are you ready?1/10 are a fatality

Notice the tow chain…lift and then let the wrecker do the workSlide4

Smart Car vs SemiSlide5

Before you can work…HAZMAT?Verify cargo, battery, and fuel locations with driver

Check the shipping papersCheck the cargo and containerChock the tires, stabilize, crib…Remember: Cargo has shifted!Know what resources you need and call early!

Heavy Wrecker and Mutual Aid Tech Rescue Units that have more cribbing and heavy duty struts. Slide6

Inner and Outer Circle Survey:

Outer and inner circle surveys: As with any proper incident command system these two important steps are essential in successfully identifying additional hazards, number of patients, degree of entrapment, spilled product and other potential problems. Having a charged line deployed at these types of incidents can never be under estimated. Always

start with the outer survey being completed with a full 360 degree view point, avoid having rescuers conduct the inner survey too early in case a potential hazard is identified during the outer survey and puts the inner rescuer in harms way.


of this would be downed electrical wires that are not initially



kiosks that have been run over and hidden by the wreckage, propane tanks, e.g. from holiday trailers where the vehicle has overturned and the hazard is no longer visible, etc. Slide7

Inner and Outer Circle Survey:These are but a few hazards that can cause major problems for rescuers if not identified early on into the incident.

Rescuers should never perform inner and outer circle surveys empty handed, always have a fire extinguisher, blocking


in hand.


on the look out for walk-off patients that may have wandered off.


is also the time to request additional resources now that the size up is more thorough. Slide8

Do you have the right equipment?Contact dispatch for Technical Rescue Response if appropriate


42 = 18,000 lbs.,

2/1 safety factor (32,000lbs)

We would need:

heavy duty struts 120,000lbs

4/1 safety factor (480,000lbs.)


the United States, 80,000 


is the maximum allowable legal gross vehicle weight without a permit.

The axle-weight breakdown is




maximum on a single axle



maximum on the tandem axlesSlide9

Heavy Wrecker is your best resourceDriver is the most experienced person on scene

60 Ton Rotator (120,000lbs.)Recovery and towing of heavy duty trucks, equipment. The boom on a rotator spins 360 degrees, much like a crane, enabling us to have unparalleled access in very difficult areas.


in fleet: 1

Class C Heavy Duty Trucks


and winch out dump trucks, rail trucks, semi’s,


trucks or anything heavy duty. Used in recoveries, offloads and many others.


in fleet: 5Slide10

Load limit = 80,000 lbsThink 20,000 lbs

per axel for cribbingRule #1: You don’t have enough cribbing on your rig. Call for more!Rule #2: “Raise an inch, crib an inch” or “Save your work”

Rule #3: Softwood cribbing preferred over manmade materials or hardwood due to audible failure warning or “cracking”.Slide11

Know your cribbing strength



4 points contact

9 points contactSlide12

Big Rig Anatomy

Piano Hinge (SS?) vs. Regular hinge

Door Handles low, “Nader bolt” high,

all tool work over your head!Slide13

Sleeper with or without access? How many drivers/passengers/pets are there?Slide14

Sleeper with or without access? How many drivers/passengers/pets are there?

Most long-haul semi units have what’s known as a sleeper; this allows the other drivers to rest if the number of driving hours is exceeds the legal limit. The sleeper unit is a compartment mounted behind the cab that can have upper and lower bunk bed for sleeping. Inside decor can be basic or it may have more elaborate luxuries such as a microwave, a wall-mounted TV, closet compartments, a sink, a fridge, a toilet and even a shower.

Typical construction features a multitude of materials ranging from steel, fibreglass, sheet metal and aluminum stud walls to wood, fabric and plastic. Breaching the walls of these sleeper units can lead to problems if the above-mentioned appliances are mounted on the walls. Access is common via the cab but some compartments have access doors on the driver or passenger side of the unit. It is highly anticipated that there will be casualties in crashes involving long-haul semis with sleeper units if occupants are sleeping inside the compartment. Slide15

Saddle fuel tanks with 50-150 gallons typicalIs there a fuel transfer shut off between tanks?Slide16

Locate the battery

Some newer models have a

Battery shut-off switchSlide17

Load shifted guaranteeSlide18

Glad Hands and Pogo Sticks?Typical compressed air brake systems are common in larger trucks. Components of these kinds of systems include air-tank reservoirs, supply lines, air chambers or piggy-back chambers with large springs that mechanically engage the brake drum or disc under each axle in case of loss of air. To add braking power to the trailer, glad hands are coupling devices used to connect the service and emergency airlines from the truck to the trailer. The couplers have a rubber seal, which prevents air from escaping.

To connect the glad hands, the operator presses the two seals together with the couplers at a 90-degree angle to each other. A turn of the glad hand attached to the hose joins and locks the couplers. The service airline is color coded blue and the emergency airline is red. For flexibility of the lines when the trailer is turning, the lines themselves are attached to a flexible pole called a pogo stick. An electrical link is made between the tractor and the trailer through a cable called a pigtail. This cable is a collection of wires in a single sleeve. Each wire controls one of the electrical circuits on the trailer, such as running lights, brake lights and turn signals. Slide19

Glad Hands and Pogo Sticks?

Green is PowerSlide20

Landing Gear – Use it but chocking wheels is still a mustMost trailers have landing gear near the front to allow them to free stand when uncoupled from the tractor. To raise and lower the load there is a gearbox attached to the landing gear that has two speeds, slow or fast, with different gear ratios. Pulling out the crank handle, or pushing it in, allows for different mechanical advantages. The landing gear can come in handy for supporting or raising the trailer in an emergency situation for rescue.Slide21

Landing Gear – Use it but chocking wheels is still a mustSlide22

“Metton Skirting” for aerodynamics

Notice hidden fuel tank for

refer unit. Only indication on

outside is hole for refueling

New fuel economy rules are forcing the manufactures to install wind resistant skirting under trailers to reduce drag, unfortunately some companies will completely cover up the diesel fuel tank for the refer unit which may be difficult to recognize in a crash situation thus posing a hazard to rescuers.Slide23

The ICC bar: Good for cribbing but not for lifting“Interstate Commerce Commission” bar: Prevents under-rides

Also known as the “Mansfield bar” after Jayne Mansfield who died 6/29/1967Known as “the working man’s (Marilyn) Monroe” and then she hit a semi…ironic?

When lifting from the opposite end you need to block up to stop the load from moving downward as the other end moves upSlide24

Look for distortion, repairs, non OEM rivets or bolts, or welded patches as these are week spotsDon’t lift here!Slide25

Know which axel has parking brakeFind the “double pancake”. Are the tires with this axel touching the ground? Use fire engine wheel chocks!Slide26

Air ride height control valveCan gain up to 3-5” which may just be enough




Plan B: Undo linkage and

manipulate arm upwardsSlide27

Parking brake? Don’t touch it if car is underneath!Automatic dump valve system? Could drop 3”

One very important safety issue to note with roughly 70 per cent of recently manufactured air-ride suspension cargo trailers; air will automatically exhaust out of the system in five to 10 seconds once the trailer parking brake is pulled, thus lowering the ride height of the trailer as much as seven


(three inches) on to the vehicle wedged underneath the trailer. This new technology is referred to as an “Automatic Dump Valve system”. The best solution in this case would be to simply chock the rear wheels and leave the trailer parking brake off.

Trailer Air Ride SupplySlide28

Raise the bus but didn’t plan for the car suspension ? Oops!Solution: Slip a ratchet strap from rim to rim across the hood

Other helpful under-ride tips

Here is another tip to reduce the amount of clearance needed between a under-ridden vehicle and a trailer called the “ratchet strap suspension lock down.”

When a vehicle under-rides a trailer, the smaller vehicle’s suspension will be compressed to the maximum. Prior to creating space between the trailer and the ground, attach a heavy-duty ratchet strap from one tire to the opposite tire over the hood or through the vehicles interior at the dash level. This will help keep the vehicle’s suspension from rising up with the trailer as it is lifted and impeding efforts. Once the desired space is achieved and extrication procedures executed, the ratchet strapped suspension can be released as needed.Slide29

Clever Lift BaggingSlide30

Clever Lift BaggingIt’s a game of inchesSlide31

School Buses – Types A-D



C – Most Common

B Slide32

School Bus Heavy duty 11-guage curved steel frame membersSlide33

School Bus Heavy duty 11-guage curved steel frame members

The skeletal system of the roof consists of heavy-duty 11-gauge curved steel frame members (roof bows), which are positioned in the roof structure running from side to side. one piece roof bows for maximum roll-over protection with 16-gauge internal continuous side plate of steel armor above and below floor line to create a wall of protection around passengers. All Type B, C and D school bus body units are comprised of a roof, sidewall, floor, front and rear. The steel skeletal system that forms the basic structure of the vehicle is hidden beneath the interior and exterior metal of the body. The strongest and best reinforced area of the school bus body is the sidewall, which is comprised of load-bearing vertical frame members of angle-iron steel that resemble studs in a wall. These frames become the partitions between windows Running horizontally inside each sidewall is an additional structural element, known as the collision beam. This resembles a highway guardrail, and its location limits penetration of objects into the bus's passenger compartment.Slide34

Walls, floors, and insulationSlide35

Walls, floors, and insulation

WallsThe interior and exterior walls of the bus consist of 20-gauge finish panels that are secured directly to the inner skeletal system of the sidewall. To meet requirements for interior noise levels and warmth, fiberglass or Styrofoam insulation is sandwiched into the walls. To further impact resistance and structural integrity of the bus sidewall, 16-gauge steel "W"-shaped rub rails are placed the full length of the sidewalls. The rear skeletal system is similar to the sidewall, with additional reinforcement installed to provide protection in rear-end collisions.


The floor joists are among the strongest components of a school bus. Notice the clips that hold the body of the bus to the chassis rails. These clips allow the body to slide during a collision (Levy County incident photo). In a recent school bus vs. train collision in Fox River Grove, Illinois, the body completely separated from the chassis, in accordance with its design. This action may have saved lives.


Bus body shall be fully insulated in the roof and all body panels to deaden sound, reduce vibrations and heat transfer. Insulation, one-inch minimum thickness, in addition to the usual sprayed on material, shall be a fiberglass or equal material and fire-resistant.Slide36

Finding structural members and bus layout is easy when looking at the rub rail locations and rivet placement

Some buses may have up to four rub rails. One rub rail must be installed at floor line and one at seat level, and shall be attached to structural members for support. Lesson: rub rails are an exterior blueprint of the inside of the busSlide37

Think about Using the KED or horse collar with a blanketSlide38

You are sure to make the news…Slide39

Plan for accessibility and crew safetySlide40

Transit BusSlide41

Transit BusTransit bus and coach construction transit has no luggage compartment and the seats are configured side

Transit speeds are generally lower in city limits as apposed to coaches traveling at highways speeds of 65 miles an hour ( 100 kms) Floor.(a) The floor shall be not less than fourteen-gauge mill, corrosive resistant coated steel or composite materials. If zinc plated, the plating shall be one hundred twenty grams per meter square minimum coating weight (grade sixty) or equivalent applied by either hot dipping or electroplatingSlide42

Transit Bus ConstructionSlide43

Plenty of exits for skinny patientsSlide44

Might be obstructions on the other side such as luggage compartments

There may be lots of obstructions to deal with when cutting the roof or side of a tour style bus, example luggage compartments Slide45

Let’s ReviewList three special considerations as IC when responding to possible Heavy Rescue incident?

What is the single best resource for a Heavy Rescue Incident?What are a few differences between passenger vehicle doors and those of semi trucks?How do you disconnect power and air supply to the trailer?Slide46

Let’s ReviewWhat does a 2/1 safety factor mean in regards to our Rescue 42’s?

What is the max legal gross vehicle weight without a special permit? How much weight should you crib for per axle?What is a quick way to gain 3” of lift?Before raising the trailer off of an “under ride” what should you do to the car?

By: giovanna-bartolotta
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Large Truck and Trailer Incident Response Review 2015 - Description

Presented by Camano Island Fire amp Rescue Cited Resource Randy Schmitz FDIC 2015 Class Outline Equipment we have vs what we need Big Rig Anatomy and Extrication Ideas School Buses and Transit Buses ID: 252074 Download Presentation

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