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Slide1

Shortness of Breath

Abdulrahman Al Frayh

Professor of Pediatrics

Consultant Pediatric Pulmonologist

King Saud UniversitySlide2

Definition Shortness of breath (SOB), or dyspnea, is a feeling of difficult or labored breathing that is out of proportion to the patient’s level of physical activity.Slide3

Description Unpleasant shortness of breath, a feeling of increased effort or tiredness in moving the chest muscles, a panicky feeling of being smothered, or a sense of tightness or cramping in the chest wall.Slide4

Acute SOB

PULMONARY DISORDERS

:

Pulmonary disorders that can cause dyspnea

include airway obstruction by a foreign object, swelling due to infection, or allergic diseases e.g. anaphylactic shock; acute pneumonia; hemorrhage from the lungs; or severe bronchospasms associated with asthma, or congenital anomalies of airways, lung and diaphragm.Slide5

Cardiovascular Disease

Acute dyspnea can be caused by disturbances of the heart rhythm, failure of the left ventricle, mitral valve dysfunction,

congenital heart disease

or an embolus.Slide6

Trauma

Chest injuries, both closed injuries and penetrating wounds, can

cause pneumothorax, bruises, or fractured ribs. Pain from these injuries results in SOB.Slide7

Other Causes

Anxiety attacks sometimes cause acute dyspnea; they may or may not be associated with chest pain. Anxiety attacks are often accompanied by hyperventilation. Hyperventilation raises the oxygen level in the blood, causing

chest pain.Slide8

Chronic SOB PULMONARY DISORDERS. Chronic dyspnea can be caused by asthma,

chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, BPD), bronchilitis, emphysema, inflammation of the lungs, pulmonary hypertension (congenital or acquired), tumors, or disorders of the vocal cords.Slide9

HEART DISEASE. C

ongenital, acquired heart diseases or inadequate

supply of blood to the heart muscle can cause dyspnea. In some cases a tumor in the heart or

p

ericarditis may cause dyspnea, congenital storage diseases in heart muscles may result in heart failure and SOB.Slide10

Neuromuscular Disorders Neuromuscular disorders cause dyspnea from progressive deterioration of the patient's chest muscles. They include

muscular dystrophy, myasthenia gravis, and Werding Hoffman Disease.Slide11

Other Causes

Patients who are severely anemic

may develop dyspnea if they exercise vigorously. Hyperthyroidism or

hypothyroidism may cause shortness of breath, and so may gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD). Slide12

Diagnosis

Patient History

Physical ExaminationSlide13

Diagnostic Tests

CBC and arterial blood gas tests to rule out infection, anemia, hyperventilation from an anxiety attack, or thyroid dysfunction. A sputum culture or nasopharyngeal aspirate can be used to test for respiratory tract infection including pneumonia.Slide14

Diagnostic Tests

BASIC DIAGNOSTIC TESTS

:

Chest X-ray and electrocardiogram (ECG)

to assist the clinician in evaluating abnormalities of larynx chest wall, also to determine the position of the diaphragm, possible rib fractures or pneumothorax, irregular heartbeat, or the adequacy of the supply of blood to the heart muscle, SPIROMETRY to screen for airway disorders.Slide15

Diagnostic Tests (cont’d)

SPECIALIZED TESTS

:

Specialized tests may be ordered for patients with

normal results from basic diagnostic tests for dyspnea. High-resolution CT scans

and/or

MRI

can be used for suspected airway obstruction or mild emphysema. Tissue biopsy performed with a bronchoscope can be used for patients with suspected lung disease.Slide16

Thank You…

By: giovanna-bartolotta
Views: 154
Type: Public

Shortness of Breath - Description


Abdulrahman Al Frayh Professor of Pediatrics Consultant Pediatric Pulmonologist King Saud University Definition Shortness of breath SOB or dyspnea is a feeling of difficult or labored breathing that is out of proportion to the patients level of physical activity ID: 401242 Download Presentation

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