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Session 4.A. Misc. Items of Session 4. -What were the different groups of Judaism like (during the time of Jesus). -Who decides what the beliefs of Catholicism are? . Questions to address. Rewind: The Messianic Expectation. ID: 396071 Download Presentation

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Pascual Session 4.A

Misc. Items of Session 4


-What were the different groups of Judaism like (during the time of Jesus)-Who decides what the beliefs of Catholicism are?

Questions to address


Rewind: The Messianic Expectation

There was no single monolithic and uniform expectation of the Messiah among first-century Jews.

N.T. Wright,

The New Testament and the People of God,




The Supreme religious authority in Jerusalem.Governed over issues of religion and secular matters.Jewish communities dispersed outside Israel (Diaspora) look to them for guidance.

The Sanhedrin


This party was the Priestly Aristocracy of Jerusalem who exercised their power through the Sanhedrin.Theologically conservative, accepted only the Pentateuch and rejected later ideas:angels, demons and resurrection of the dead, all of which developed in the postexilic period.



Comprised of both priests and lay peopleSeek to extend Temple holiness to everyday life.Predecessor of Rabbinic Judaism.More Liberal than Sadduceesaccepted angels and demons, free will, judgment after death and resurrection of the dead

The Pharisees


Highly probable that Jesus engaged in debates with the Pharisees, though unlikely to have been involved in his arrest or execution.Played a major role in Judaism after the destruction of the Temple (70 AD)Also, Jewish Christians were excommunicated from the synagogues shortly after.

Note on



Fanatical Jewish nationalistsUsed terrorism and assassination against RomansInterpreted Jewish Messianic Hope politicallyNot a major power until 66-70 AD

The Zealots


Jewish version of the Omish withdrawn to the desert quasi-monastic life under strict rule settled at Qumran“Dead Sea Scrolls” comes from them

The Essenes


Highly eschatological if not apocalypticRitual purity, strict observance of LawStudy of ScripturesJoining sect meant new covenant relationship with GodExpected for 2 Messiahs

Theological View of Essenes


Lived in the high country between Judea and GalileeMixed people: survivors of Northern kingdom of Israel and the AssyriansConsidered heretical and schismatic by other JewsBuilt their own temple on Mt Garizim, and did not worship in JerusalemAccepted only the Pentateuch Messiah was seen as “The Restorer”

The Samaritans


The Jewish groups during the destruction of the Temple

The Jewish Revolt (66-70 A.D.)

SanhedrinSadduceesPhariseesThe EssenesThe Samaritans“The Way” (followers of Jesus)


Religion Tree/





Followers of THE WAY





-What were the different groups of Judaism like (during the time of Jesus)-Who decides what the beliefs of Catholicism are?

Questions to address


-What were the different groups of Judaism like (during the time of Jesus)-Who decides what the beliefs of Catholicism are?

Questions to address


Popular understanding of receiving doctrine (Pre-Vatican)

Known as the juridical view

Formal Teaching:The Magisterium promulgates law and teaches doctrine

2) Reception

The faithful obediently accept these laws and doctrines


Post-Vatican Model

1a) The Christian faithful’s

pluriform expression of its faith

2a) Episcopal Reception of these Expressions of Faith

3a) Official Formulation as Doctrine

4a) Reception of Doctrinal Formulations


The transmission of faith comes through the life of the Church (worship, Scripture, Tradition) protected by the successors of the Apostles (the bishops).Most authoritative formulations occur in “ecumenical councils.” See Acts 15. Catholics see the first ecumenical council to be The Council of Jerusalem (in Acts 15) Non-Catholic Historians prefer to begin with the Council of Nicea (325 AD) The latest council is Vatican II (1960-69)









How was the New Testament put together?

The Books for the New Testament Canon was decided on two criteria:

-associated with an apostle in some way

- orthodox in doctrine (use in worship)

Interplay of life of the Church and the written Scripture

- living community checked and controlled by the testimony of the apostle

- the written records were checked and controlled by the living community


Early decades of the 2nd Century, there are evidence of the modern day canonBut not definitively finalized until 380-90AD (in the West)Significantly later in the East.Brown E., Raymond. Introduction to the New Testament.Bokkenkotter, Thomas. A Concise History of the Catholic Church.Gonzalez L., Justo. The Story of Christianity.Gaillardetz, Richard. By What Authority? A primer on Scripture, the Magisterium and the Sense of the Faithful.

Finalization of the NT Canon




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