Que  veut  dire “DEVOIR”?
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Que veut dire “DEVOIR”?

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Que veut dire “DEVOIR”?




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Slide1

Que veut dire “DEVOIR”?

Conjugations and uses of the verb “devoir”

en

français

.

Slide2

Conjuguez « Devoir » Au Présent.

Je

Tu

Il/Elle

Nous

Vous

Ils

/

elles

Slide3

Devoir is one of the most common French verbs. It is irregular in conjugation and has a number of different meanings related to concepts like obligation and probability.

1. Obligation and necessity

   

Dois-tu

étudier

ce soir ?   Do you have to study tonight?   Elles doivent manger   They must / need to eat. 2. Probability and supposition   Il doit rentrer avant le dîner   He should / will probably be back before dinner   Nous devons gagner plus cette année   We should earn more this year.   Elle doit être à l'école   She must be at school

 

3. Expectation and intention

   

Je

devais

aller

avec

eux

   I was supposed to go with them.

   

Il

devait

le faire,

mais

il

a

oublié

   He was supposed to do it, but he forgot

 

4

. Fatalism and inevitability

   

Il

devait

perdre

un jour

   He had to / was bound to lose one day

   

Elle ne

devait

pas

l'entendre

avant

lundi

   She wasn't to hear it until Monday

Slide4

Translating devoir

Devoir

 can be translated by should, must, ought to, have to, supposed to - the distinction between necessity and probability is not always clear

:

 

Je

dois faire la lessive (I should/must/have to do the laundry)Il doit arriver demain (He is supposed to / should / has to arrive tomorrow)To specify "must" rather than "should," add a word like absolument or vraiment:   Je dois absolument partir   I really have to go   Nous devons vraiment te parler   We must speak to youTo specify "should" rather than "must," use the conditional:

   

Tu

devrais

partir

Ils

devraient

lui

parler

   You should leave

.

 

They should talk to him.

To say that something that "should have" happened, use the 

conditional perfect

 of 

devoir

 plus the infinitive:

   

Tu

aurais

manger

   You should have eaten.

   

J'aurais

étudier

   I should have studied.

Slide5

OTHER MEANINGS

Devoir

 as a transitive

verbWhen used 

transitively

 (and thus not followed by a verb), 

devoir means "to owe":   Combien est-ce qu'il te doit ?   How much does he owe you?   Pierre me doit 10 francs   Pierre owes me 10 francsDevoir as a nounDevoir is also a masculine noun. Le devoir means "duty," while les devoirscan mean "duties" or "homework."

Slide6

HOW TO USE DEVOIR

should

 meaning 

ought toWhere you could replace should

 with 

ought to

 and it would have more or less the same meaning, then a common translation in French is to use the conditional tense of the verb devoir. As in English, it is followed by the infinitive. For example:je/tu devrais venirI/you should comeil devrait faire ses devoirshe should do his homeworkon devrait pouvoir venirwe should be able to comevous devriez l'aideryou should help him How to translate should have ... into FrenchThe formula should have ... is translated into French using the conditional perfect of devoir. This means that you use:

conditional of 

avoir

 + 

 + 

infinitive

For example:

j'

aurais

 

venir

should have

 come

tu

aurais

lui

dire que

tu

étais

malade

you should have told him that you were ill

il

 

n'aurait

pas

 manger

tant

de

chocolat

he 

shouldn't have

 eaten so much chocolate

 

Slide7

HOW TO USE DEVOIR

should

 meaning 

wouldIn formal, old-fashioned usage, should

 is sometimes used to mean 

would

.Where you could change should to would with essentially no change of meaning, then use the conditional tense as usual in French.Since using should in this way is essentially formal (and for many speakers old-fashioned), you could try to find a formal verb in French. For example, for I should like ... a possibility is to say j'aimerais ... orje souhaiterais ... rather than je voudrais .... It's often not possible to make such a distinction in French, however.should introducing a conditionIn English, the construction if I/you should ... is sometimes used to mean something similar to if ever I/you .... In French, a possible translation is therefore to use si jamais ... ("if ever ..."):si jamais vous visitez la France, allez voir la Tour Eiffelif you should (ever) visit France, go and see the Eiffel Tower 

Slide8

HOW TO USE DEVOIR

"it is surprising that he should ..."

etc

In formal or careful usage, English sometimes uses should

 to

emphasise

the speaker's reaction to something rather than stating that something has taken place. (In a formal analysis, this is sometimes called a non-assertion.) For example:I was really surprised that he should decide to come In this sentence, the speaker chooses to say should decide rather than decided to emphasise theirreaction to the decision rather than simply stating that the decision was made.In French, this use of should generally corresponds to the subjunctive. The subjunctive is a special verb form used to make a non-assertion. (English no longer has subjunctive forms of the verb; the nearest equivalent to the subjunctive in English is using other constructions such as should ..., might ... as in the above example.) So to translate the above example into French using the subjunctive, we might say:cela m'a vraiment étonné qu'il ait décidé de venir The construction ait décidé means roughly the same as a décidé = (has) decided, but ait is thesubjunctive form of avoir rather than the usual present tense form that you'd use to form the perfect tense.

Slide9

Devoir is one of the trickiest verbs to translate and use in French. The following is a list of the different meanings of devoir used in various tenses.

Present Tense

must, have to

probably

Je 

dois

 étudier.Il doit être malade.I must (have to) study.He's probably sick.

Passé Composé

had to (and did),

must have

Il 

a dû 

partir.

He had to leave.

Imperfect

was supposed to,

used to have to

Elle 

devait 

chanter ce soir.

She was supposed to sing tonight.

Future

will have to

Tu devras payer l'argent.You will have to pay money.ConditionalshouldVous devriez manger les fruits.You should eat fruits.Past Conditionalshould haveIls auraient dû jouer.They should have played.

Slide10