PRO Water Use and Treatment in the Pulp and Paper Industry Volume August  Sappi Fine Paper North America  State Street Boston MA  eQ Insights Volume August  Water Use and Treatment in the Pulp and Pa
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PRO Water Use and Treatment in the Pulp and Paper Industry Volume August Sappi Fine Paper North America State Street Boston MA eQ Insights Volume August Water Use and Treatment in the Pulp and Pa

Paper buyers can use this information to make informed decisions regarding suppliers and claims about their environmental performance They may also choose to use the systems HUK57347VVSZ57347KPZJZZLK57347ILSV57347MVY57347HJOPLPUN57347JVTWHU57364ZWLJ

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PRO Water Use and Treatment in the Pulp and Paper Industry Volume August Sappi Fine Paper North America State Street Boston MA eQ Insights Volume August Water Use and Treatment in the Pulp and Pa

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PRO-5941 Water Use and Treatment in the Pulp and Paper Industry Volume 5/August 2012 Sappi Fine Paper North America 255 State Street, Boston MA 02109 eQ Insights Volume 5/August 2012 Water Use and Treatment in the Pulp and Paper Industry The purpose of this brief is to provide our customers and stakeholders with an overview and update on water management in the pulp and paper industry. Paper buyers can use this information to make informed decisions regarding suppliers and claims about their environmental performance. They may also choose to use the systems

HUK[VVSZKPZJ\ZZLKILSV^MVYHJOPL]PUNJVTWHU`ZWLJPJNVHSZYLSH[LK[VYLZWVUZPISL^H[LYTHUHNLTLU[ The information provided herein is based on Sappis knowledge and expertise and is supported by many of the studies included in the reference section. Overview As large industrial users of water, the pulp and paper industry has long managed water in the context of a regulatory environ ment. In other words, all mills in North America must use and treat water in accordance with environmental

permits. However, the industry is now collectively moving beyond water quality to better understand quantity and the environmental impacts of water use. Sappi and other industry participants are committed [VIL[[LY\UKLYZ[HUKPUNV\YPTWHJ[ZHUK^LOH]LPKLU[PLK the evaluation of water footprinting tools and water disclosure as a key initiative. While access to water is an issue of global JVUJLYUP[PZJYP[PJHS[VYLJVNUPaLSVJHSZP[LZWLJPJYLZV\YJLZ

Herein we provide an overview on water usage in the pulp and WHWLYPUK\Z[Y`HUKVMMLYYLLJ[PVUZVU[OLKYP]PUNMVYJLZMVYHUK barriers to change. The Global Water Issue >H[LYPZZ\LZOH]LILLUPKLU[PLKHZ[OLTVZ[ZLYPV\ZZ\Z[HPU ability challenges facing the planet, partly due to the impacts of climate change (1, 2). Less than 1% of the worlds water is easily accessible fresh water and increasing population, urbanization, per capita demand, and

pollution damage to supplies will put even greater pressure on these limited resources (3). Today, roughly 20% of the worlds population (1.2 billion people) live in
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PRO-5941 Water Use and Treatment in the Pulp and Paper Industry Volume 5/August 2012 Sappi Fine Paper North America 255 State Street, Boston MA 02109 areas of physical water scarcity, while nearly another 25% live in areas where governments lack the technical capacity, funding, or infrastructure to meet basic human and environmental water needs (4). Freshwater availability in different areas of the globe has been

mapped by the WBCSD a (3) and shows the following general pattern: Overall, North and South America, Europe and Russia are PKLU[PLKHZHYLHZ^P[OSP[[SLVYUV^H[LYZJHYJP[` Areas of physical water scarcity include a portion of the U.S. southwest and south-central areas, the border of Northern Africa, large portions of Asia and southeast Australia. Most of central Africa is affected by economic water scarcity The Status of Water in North America A 2010 study on the effects of global warming on water supply and demand in the

contiguous United States (5) has found that more than 1,100 counties one-third of all counties in the lower 48 will face higher risks of water shortages by 2050 as a result of global warming. These areas include parts of Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Florida, Idaho, Kansas, Mississippi, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, Okla homa, and Texas. Water sustainability in the Great Plains and Southwest United States is at extreme risk. The study points out that the three categories of water use with the greatest demand are agricultural use, power plant cooling, and public supply. In

the United States, industrial water use makes up 4% of total water withdrawals (Figure 1). Thermoelectric power (49%), irrigation (31%) and public supply (11%) make up a total of 91% of the water withdrawals in the U.S. (6). Sappis U.S. manufacturing operations are located in regions of little or no water scarcity (Maine and Minnesota). a. World Business Council on Sustainable Development. b. Abundant water resources relative to use. Less than 25% of water from rivers withdrawn for human purposes. c. Water resources development is approaching or has exceeded

Z\Z[HPUHISLSPTP[Z4VYL[OHUVMYP]LYV^ZHYL^P[OKYH^UMVY agriculture, industry and domestic purposes (accounting for recycling VMYL[\YUV^Z K/\THUPUZ[P[\[PVUHSHUKUHUJPHSJHWP[HSSPTP[HJJLZZ[V^H[LYL]LU though water in nature is locally available to meet human demands. Water resources are abundant relative to water use, with less than 25% of water from rivers

withdrawn for human purposes, but malnutrition exists. e. Includes water used in manufacturing and producing commodities, Z\JOHZMVVKWHWLYJOLTPJHSZYLULKWL[YVSL\T^VVKWYVK\J[Z and primary metals. An Overview of Water Initiatives >H[LYPUP[PH[P]LZJHUILIYVHKS`JSHZZPLKPU[V[OLMVSSV^PUN three categories (7): 1. Water footprinting as promoted by the Water Footprint Network (8). Water footprinting is a process that looks at the

direct and indirect water use of any system a user wants to examine. Examples include individual product footprints, corporate, community, and even national water footprints. 2. Water Sustainability and Stewardship as demonstrated by the Alliance for Water Stewardship (9) and the Global Water Roundtable (10). Initiating international cooperation for develop ment of a water stewardship standard and regional and local initiatives to enable stakeholders to achieve their facility or watershed level targets. 3. Disclosure and Risk Management as demonstrated by the Water Disclosure initiative

launched by the Carbon Disclosure Project (11). Driving increased awareness and understanding of the environmental and business impacts of water use by provid ing a consistent vehicle for widespread reporting of water usage and associated risks. Water footprinting is increasingly referenced in literature and the marketplace. Simply stated, a water footprint is the amount of water needed for a product, service or business, including supply chain needs. Much like when documenting carbon foot

WYPU[Z[OLYLPZHULLK[VKLULZJVWLHUKIV\UKHYPLZVM[OLZL types of measurements to help clarify results. A recent study on the water footprint of paper manufactured at a non-integrated ULWHWLYTPSSPU.LYTHU`JVUJS\KLK[OH[HIV\[ VM the water footprint originated from the raw material supply chain and the remaining 1% from the paper mill production processes. A summary of the key

water stewardship initiatives since 2006 was compiled by the World Business Council for Sustainable Development and the International Union for Conservation of Nature (12). While the guide is not an exhaustive overview, it can help businesses identify which initiatives might best suit their needs. Several publications are available on the business risks of water scarcity and the tools available to identify and minimize risks (11,14,15,16). (11%) Public Supply (1%) Domestic (31%) Irrigation (<1%) Livestock (2%) Agriculture (4%) Industrial (1%) Mining (49%) Thermoelectric Power Summary of

Estimated Water Use in the United States Figure 1
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PRO-5941 Water Use and Treatment in the Pulp and Paper Industry Volume 5/August 2012 Sappi Fine Paper North America 255 State Street, Boston MA 02109 Water Use in the Pulp and Paper Industry Pulp and paper operations are highly dependent on the use and responsible management of water resources. Water is used in all major process stages, including raw materials preparation (e.g., wood chip washing), pulp washing and screening, and paper machines (e.g., pulp slurry dilution and fabric showers). Water is also used, for process

cooling, materials transport, equipment cleaning, general facilities operations, and to generate steam for use in processes and on-site power generation (13). There are PTWVY[HU[KLUP[PVUZ[VUV[LYLNHYKPUN[OL\ZLHUKMH[LVM^H[LY at pulp and paper mills (see Figure 2). Figure 3 illustrates in general terms the ways in which water enters and leaves a manufacturing operation. The U.S. forest products industry withdraws the majority of its water from surface water sources and 14% from groundwater sources (19).

Although the industry is a large user of freshwater, it consumes a small amount of the water that it uses. A study by NCASI VU[OL^H[LYWYVSLVM[OL<:MVYLZ[WYVK\J[ZPUK\Z[Y` concluded that 88% of the water used is returned directly to sur face waters following treatment; about 11% is converted to water vapor and emitted during the manufacturing process; and 1% is imparted to products or solid residuals (19,20). In addition, there


[OLWHZ[[OYLLKLJHKLZ[OLX\HSP[`VMLM\LU[ZOHZPTWYV]LK KYHTH[PJHSS`[OYV\NOPUWYVJLZZTLHZ\YLZHUKVUNVPUNYLUL ment of wastewater treatment operations (22). As a result, several f. National Council for Air and Stream Improvement. :VTL2L`+LUP[PVUZ The following terms are commonly used to describe the pulp and paper industrys usage of freshwater (18): Groundwater : Water held underground in the soil or in pores and crevices in

rock. Surface water : Water that is on the earths surface, such as streams, rivers, lakes or reservoirs. Water use : The total amount of water used by a facility for process and cooling needs (generally equivalent to water intake). Water consumption : The portion of water that is removed from a water source that is not immediately returned to the water source (ex: water loss due to evaporation and water leaving with product and solid residuals). ,M\LU[ (sometimes also called wastewater): The water discharged from a facility, often subcategorized into treated

WYVJLZZLM\LU[HUKUVUJVU[HJ[JVVSPUN^H[LYLM\LU[ ;YLH[LKWYVJLZZLM\LU[ : Water that has come into contact with process materials, and thus has a certain degree of contamination from process materials. 7YVJLZZLM\LU[PZ\Z\HSS`[YLH[LKTLJOHUPJHSS`HUK biologically to remove organic material. 5VUJVU[HJ[JVVSPUN^H[LYLM\LU[ : Water that is used for cooling duty that does not come into direct contact with process water

but is usually of a higher temperature than the water entering a mill. Evaporative losses : Water that evaporates to the atmosphere, and eventually returns to the earth as rain. When discussing water, the type of water use should ILJSLHYS`KLULK-VYL_HTWSL!PU[HRLKPZJOHYNL evaporation, consumption. Figure 2 Pulp & Paper Manufacturing Operations Wastewater Treatment Plant Atmosphere Internal Water Re-use Wood & other materials Groundwater Surface Water Water in Products Water in Solid Residuals Discharge to Receiving Waters

For more details on wastewater treatment, see section 7, Figure 6. Figure 3 Evaporation Evaporation Consumptive Losses Water Intake Water Discharge :PTWSPLK>H[LY)HSHUJL Precipitation
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PRO-5941 Water Use and Treatment in the Pulp and Paper Industry Volume 5/August 2012 Sappi Fine Paper North America 255 State Street, Boston MA 02109 L_[LUZP]LZ[\KPLZVU[YLH[LKLM\LU[ZZOV^[OH[[OLYLHYLML^VY

UVJVUJLYUZYLNHYKPUN[OLJVTWH[PIPSP[`VM[OLZLLM\LU[Z^P[O healthy aquatic systems (19). )L[^LLUHUK:HWWPYLK\JLKP[ZZWLJPJ^H[LY intake by nearly 15% and our performance data indicates that over 95% of our water intake is discharged back to the receiving environment (Figure 4). The bulk of the consumed water is presumed to be lost to the atmosphere through evaporation. Both the water

intake and discharge numbers include non-contact cooling water. 6 The Importance of Our Forests Forests act to process precipitation into high quality surface ^H[LYZ;OL5*(:0^H[LYWYVSLZ[\K`YLWVY[Z[OH[ of freshwater in the U.S. originates from forests (54% from timberland) and therefore society and industry have a shared PU[LYLZ[PUTHPU[HPUPUNMVYLZ[ZHUK[OL^H[LYYLZV\YJLILUL[Z of forested land. Forest management can

help minimize impacts to surface and groundwater by the use of Best Management Practices, including forest regrowth. Water inputs for the manufacture of forest products equal about 0.4% of the surface and groundwater yield from timberland in the U.S. and forest management generally has small and short-term impacts on water resources (19). Water Treatment Water used in the pulp and paper-making process requires [YLH[TLU[WYPVY[VKPZJOHYNL[VHU`YLJLP]PUN^H[LYZ,M\LU[ treatment is typically needed to meet environmental

regulations and minimize environmental impacts to aquatic ecosystems. :VTLVM[OLOPZ[VYPJHSPTWHJ[ZVMW\SWHUKWHWLYTPSSLM\LU[Z have included oxygen depletion of receiving waters, solids settling on the bottom of lakes, rivers or marine areas, bioac cumulation of persistent organic chemicals in the aquatic food ^LIHUKL\[YVWOPJH[PVUPUJYLHZLKHSNHSNYV^[OK\L[VLM\LU[ loading of phosphorus and nitrogen (24). The

characteristics of [OL\U[YLH[LKWYVJLZZLM\LU[KLWLUKSHYNLS`VU[OL[`WLVM pulp and paper products manufactured at the mill site (25, 26), for example: Bleached and unbleached kraft pulp Pulp using the CTMP process (integrated or non-integrated mills) Integrated mechanical pulp and paper mills 9LJ`JSLKILYWHWLYTPSSZ^P[OHUK^P[OV\[KLPURPUN or tissue mills)

0U[OL<:[OLUHS[YLH[LKTPSSLM\LU[T\Z[TLL[Z[H[LHUK federal regulations (27, 28, 29) which include limits on water PU[HRLHUKLM\LU[X\HSP[`WHYHTL[LYZ>H[LYHUKLM\LU[[LZ[PUN is conducted routinely by laboratories at mill sites, as well as by specialized private laboratories. Figure 5 below lists some 49.4 47.1 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 48.1 45.4 48.3 47.1 43.9 42.2 42.1 40.0 Sappi Water

Intake/Water Discharge Figure 4 Intake Discharge Common Parameters 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) : The amount VMKPZZVS]LKV_`NLUJVUZ\TLKPU]LKH`ZI`IPVSVNPJHS processes breaking down organic matter. The test is used [VPUMLY[OLNLULYHSKLNYLLVMVYNHUPJSVHKPUNVM[OLLM\LU[ Total suspended solids (TSS) : TSS is a measure of the settleable and non-settleable solids in wastewater. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) : A measurement of the overall

pollutant load in terms of chemically oxidizable (degradable) solids. Unlike BOD, COD measurements are taken by chemical oxidation in controlled standard ized conditions. Chlorinated organics : This includes several classes of chemicals such as chlorinated phenolic compounds, dioxins and furans, to name a few. AOX (adsorbable organic halogens) is a common measurement which regroups many of the chlorinated organic compounds JVU[HPULKPULM\LU[WYVK\JLKK\YPUN[OLISLHJOPUNVM pulp. Certain chlorinated organics, such as polychlorinated

dibenzo dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzo furans (PCDFs) are a concern due to their toxicity, persistence and bio-accumulative properties. Flow !;OPZPZ[`WPJHSS`[OL]VS\TLVM[YLH[LKLM\LU[KPZ charged to a receiving environment. In many cases mills also measure the volume of water intake and cooling water. Temperature and pH : These are standard measurements. W/PZHUPUKPJH[PVUVM[OLHJPKP[`VYHSRHSPUP[`VMHULM\LU[ Metals (ex:

copper, zinc, nickel, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury) : Heavy metals are often TLHZ\YLKPULM\LU[ZKLWLUKPUNVUHWWSPJHISLYLN\SH[PVUZ Metals can cause toxicity to aquatic organisms and some, like mercury, can bio-accumulate in the food chain. Phosphorus and nitrogen : Phosphorus and nitrogen are both naturally occurring elements, but they are also key elements found in fertilizer. An increase of these elements in the aquatic environment can lead to nuisance growth of aquatic plants and oxygen depletion of receiving waters (i.e.,

eutrophication). Figure 5 cubic meters per air dried metric ton
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PRO-5941 Water Use and Treatment in the Pulp and Paper Industry Volume 5/August 2012 Sappi Fine Paper North America 255 State Street, Boston MA 02109 JVTTVUWHYHTL[LYZTLHZ\YLKPUW\SWHUKWHWLYTPSSLM\LU[Z 7\SWHUKWHWLYLM\LU[[YLH[TLU[TL[OVKZKLWLUKSHYNLS`VU the limits imposed by environmental regulations and can vary by location. In North America, mills typically operate primary

and secondary (or biological) treatment systems, and, in some cases, [LY[PHY`[YLH[TLU[[VHJOPL]LKLZPYHISLSL]LSZVMLM\LU[X\HSP[` 7\SWHUKWHWLYTPSSLM\LU[[YLH[TLU[[`WPJHSS`PUJS\KLZ[OL following components (Figure 6): 7YPTHY`LM\LU[[YLH[TLU[ . This may consist of neutralization, ZJYLLUPUNZLKPTLU[H[PVUHUKV[H[PVUO`KYVJ`JSVUPUN[V remove suspended solids. Many mills

operate primary clari LYZ[OH[JHUYLTV]L\W[V VMZL[[SLHISLZVSPKZPU[OL WYVJLZZLM\LU[ Biological/secondary treatment ;OPZZ[HNLZPNUPJHU[S` YLK\JLZ[OLVYNHUPJJVU[LU[HUK[V_PJP[`VM[OLLM\LU[K\L to active biodegradation by microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, protozoans) living in the treatment plant and using the

LM\LU[HZHZV\YJLVMMVVKJHYIVU;OLTVZ[JVTTVUS` used biological treatment systems in the pulp and paper industry are Aerated Stabilization Basins (ASB) and Activated Sludge Treatment (AST). A key feature of these systems is aeration by surface or submerged aerators, and the addition of nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus) to maintain a healthy population of mi croorganisms. ASB and AST systems typically reduce BOD5 by over 80% and COD by 50% to 90%. Tertiary treatment . This involves chemical

precipitation to remove certain chemicals, reduce toxicity, suspended solids, and color. Solids collected in the various treatment stages are typically dewatered and used as a fuel for energy production, and in some JHZLZILYZHUKJVH[PUNTH[LYPHSZTH`ILYL\ZLKVYYLJ`JSLK back into the mill process. Depending on local regulations, cooling water can either be discharged without treatment, or may require some form of

[YLH[TLU[HUKVYTVUP[VYPUNL_!V^HUK[LTWLYH[\YLWYPVY[V discharge. Storm water (i.e., from roofs, parking lots, yards) and ZHUP[HY`LM\LU[MYVTTPSSZP[LZTHRL\WHYLSH[P]LS`ZTHSSWVY[PVU of water used and are typically collected and treated to meet envi ronmental regulations prior to being returned to receiving waters.

;OLILUL[ZVMYLK\JPUN^H[LY\ZLH[W\SWHUKWHWLYTPSSZP[LZ include less overall chemical and energy use, lower fuel costs, reduced wastewater discharges, reduced water treatment costs HUKHJSLHULYLM\LU[KPZJOHYNLZVTL[PTLZK\L[VOPNOLY YL[LU[PVU[PTLPU[OLLM\LU[[YLH[TLU[WSHU[>H[LYLMJPLUJ` measures are usually grouped into two major categories: 1)

general and facilities water management (i.e., goals, targets, audits, good housekeeping), and 2) process strategies (i.e., upgrading equipment, optimizing water re-use, reducing losses) (17). Energy savings are closely linked to water reduction given that pulp and paper mills heat water to produce hot water and steam for cooking wood chips, pulp washing, transporting pulp, drying paper and other applications. The key production and control WYHJ[PJLZ[OH[^PSSSLHK[V^H[LYYLK\J[PVUPTWYV]LKLM\LU[ quality, energy savings

and regulatory compliance at pulp and paper mills include the following (17, 25, 26, 30): Dry (instead of wet) debarking processes. Recycling and re-use of certain process streams and cooling water, including optimizing shower water use and improving white water quality. Minimizing solids losses for coated paper production (including use of coating recovery systems). Water conservation measures in the mill (e.g., vacuum pump seal water) Preventing and controlling spills of black liquor in the manufacture of kraft pulp. Using elemental chlorine-free bleaching systems. Reducing the use of

bleaching chemicals (and energy) by L_[LUKLKJVVRPUNHUKV_`NLUKLSPNUPJH[PVU W/JVU[YVS nutrient addition ,M\LU[ Untreated TPSSLM\LU[ )HYR Biomass Solids Ash +L^H[LYPUN,M\LU[ Activated Sludge Aeration Basin(s) 3HUKSSVY ILULJPHS re-use Solids Dewatering Energy recovery by combustion Figure 6 Primary *SHYPLYZ Secondary *SHYPLYZ Solids Waste Activated Sludge ;YLH[LKLM\LU[ discharge to receiving environment via outfall with or without diffuser

Return Activated Sludge Solids 7\SWHUK7HWLY4PSS,M\LU[;YLH[TLU[
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PRO-5941 Water Use and Treatment in the Pulp and Paper Industry Volume 5/August 2012 Sappi Fine Paper North America 255 State Street, Boston MA 02109 :VTLVM[OLWYLJLLKPUNWYHJ[PJLZJHUYLZ\S[PU^H[LYHUKVY energy savings of hundreds of thousands to millions of dollars per year per mill site (17). The age of installed

LX\PWTLU[OHZHZPNUPJHU[PU\LUJLVU[OL^H[LYLMJPLUJ` of a mill. Mills that have newer or recently upgraded equipment HYLNLULYHSS`[OLTVZ[^H[LYLMJPLU[^OPSLTPSSZ^P[OVSKLY more water intensive equipment are typically the least water LMJPLU[(KKP[PVUHSYLMLYLUJLZHYLH]HPSHISLVU^H[LY reduction within the pulp and paper industry

(17,30). One of the key challenges for pulp and paper mills is the fact that recycling of process water (instead of freshwater use) is limited by the accumulation of dissolved matter from wood and other raw materials entering the process. Some of the problems associated with contaminant accumulation are deposition and scaling, foaming, corrosion, stream dead load, and degradation of the end product quality parameters. While strategies for controlling these contaminants can be developed, the degree to which further water reduction can be achieved becomes a

ZP[LZWLJPJJOHSSLUNL Drivers and Barriers to Change The main drivers for responsible water management are regulations, the marketplace and drought (7). In addition to LM\LU[YLN\SH[PVUZ^H[LY\ZLYLN\SH[PVUZHYLUV^LTLYNPUN such as the EPA cooling water intake structures rule (Clean Water Act Section 316b) and the Great Lakes St. Lawrence River Basin Water Resources Compact (7). Marketplace drivers include systems and tools used by companies for improving water management and reporting performance. The

following are examples of some well- known initiatives: Alliance for Water Stewardship (9) Carbon Disclosure Project Water Disclosure (11) Ceres Aqua Gauge (32) Global Water Roundtable (10) Global Water Tool (WBCSD) (33) UN CEO Water Mandate (34) Water Footprint Network (8) Drought is a third driver for change and can have serious implications on industrial sites and their receiving environments, including mill shutdowns for periods of days (7). The barriers for change related to water management are economic, social and technical, such as new capital investments needed, regulatory

uncertainties, the risks associated with new methods and a lack of breakthrough innovations, to name a few (35). Summary Water scarcity is a rapidly growing global concern that will PU\LUJL^H[LYYLZV\YJLTHUHNLTLU[PUTVZ[YLNPVUZVM the world, including parts of North America. Access to water resources is becoming more controlled, especially for industrial water users. Best practices and tools in the realm of water footprinting and disclosure are developing and now being used by an increasing number of companies to identify and manage

business risks related to water. The North American pulp and paper industry is highly regulated ^P[OYLZWLJ[[V^H[LY\ZLHUKLM\LU[X\HSP[`,U]PYVUTLU[HS regulations establish a minimum baseline that companies must meet in order to prevent negative environmental impacts. The age of the technology in use at mill sites is a key factor PU\LUJPUNLU]PYVUTLU[HSWLYMVYTHUJL^H[LYHUKLULYN`\ZL Implementation of best practices cuts water use and improves

LM\LU[X\HSP[`[OYV\NOJSLHULYWYVK\J[PVUWYVJLZZLZHUK pollution prevention measures, which can yield both economic HUKLU]PYVUTLU[HSILUL[Z0TWYV]LK^H[LYTHUHNLTLU[PZ often directly linked to reduced energy use and lower green house gas emissions. Although the manufacture of pulp and paper is water-use intensive relative to most other industries, the amount of water consumed (i.e., evaporated or exported with products or residuals) represents a small fraction of the overall water

used. Approximately 88% of the water used by the U.S. forest products industry is returned to surface waters following treat TLU[;OLYLOH]LILLUZPNUPJHU[PTWYV]LTLU[ZPUIV[O^H[LY \ZLHUKLM\LU[X\HSP[`PU[OL<:W\SWHUKWHWLYPUK\Z[Y` >OPSLLU]PYVUTLU[HSLMMLJ[ZVM[YLH[LKLM\LU[ZHYLZVTL[PTLZ observed, aquatic communities are usually not altered by well-

[YLH[LKTPSSLM\LU[Z0U5VY[O(TLYPJHTVZ[Z\YMHJL^H[LYZ are derived from forested areas. Forest management can affect water quality and the use of forestry best management practices greatly minimizes harmful effects (19, 20). 10 References All Web links validated as of July 31, 2012. 1. United Nations Global Compact. 2011. Fresh Water Resources and Related Services. IV UN Conference on the Least Developed Countries,

7YP]H[L:LJ[VY;YHJRO[[W!^^^\UNSVIHSJVTWHJ[VYNKVJZPZZ\LZ FKVJ,U]PYVUTLU[3+*F>H[LYF-PUHSWKM 2. Bates, B.C., Z.W. Kundzewicz, S. Wu, and J.P. Palutikof, Eds., 2008. Climate Change and Water. Technical Paper of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, IPCC Secretariat, Geneva. 3. WBCSD. 2009. Facts and Trends Water, Version 2. World Business Council for Sustainable Development. 4. Comprehensive Assessment of Water Management in Agriculture. 2007. Water for food, Water for life: A

Comprehensive Assessment of Water Management in Agriculture . London: Earthscan and Colombo: International Water Management Institute.
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2009. Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 2005. U.S. Dept. of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey Circular O[[W!W\IZ\ZNZNV]JPYJWKMJWKM 7. Schwartz, J. 2011. External Pressures and Drivers. Presentation given at Water Sustainability in the Pulp and Paper Industry (AIChE & TAPPI), Nov. 10-11, 2011, Providence, RI.


CDP. 2009. CDP Water Disclosure The Case for Water Disclosure. Carbon Disclosure Project. London, November 2009. 12. WBCSD and IUCN. 2010. Water for Business Initiatives Guiding Sustainable Water Management in the Private Sector, Version 2. World Business Council for Sustainable Development and International Union for Conservation of Nature. March 2010. 13. UPM-Kymmene. 2011. From Forest to Paper, the story of our water

MVV[WYPU[(\N\Z[O[[W!^^^^H[LYMVV[WYPU[VYN9LWVY[Z<74WKM 7HJPJ0UZ[P[\[LMVY*LYLZ >H[LY:JHYJP[`*SPTH[L*OHUNL! Growing Risks for Businesses & Investors. Ceres Boston, MA, February 2009. 15. J.P. Morgan. 2008. Watching water A guide to evaluating corporate risks in a thirsty

world. JP Morgan Global Equity Research, March 2008. 16. Pegasys Consulting for WWF. 2009. Investigating Shared Risk in Water: Corporate Engagement with the Public Policy Process. World Wildlife Fund. March 2009. 2YHTLY2L[HS ,ULYN`,MJPLUJ`0TWYV]LTLU[HUK*VZ[ Saving Opportunities for the Pulp and Paper Industry (Report No. LBNL- 2268E), Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley,

*(6J[VILY O[[W!^^^LULYN`Z[HYNV]PHI\ZPULZZPUK\Z[Y` KV^USVHKZ7\SWFHUKF7HWLYF,ULYN`F.\PKLWKM 4HSTILYN)L[HS>H[LY7YVSLVM[OL*HUHKPHU-VYLZ[ Products Industry. NCASI Technical Bulletin No. 975, National Council for Air and Stream Improvement, Inc., Research Triangle Park, NC.

 -SPUKLYZ* >H[LY7YVSLVM[OL Industry. NCASI Technical Bulletin No. 960, National Council for Air and Stream Improvement, Inc., Research Triangle Park, NC. >PLNHUK7:L[HS>H[LY7YVSLZVM[OL-VYLZ[7YVK\J[Z Industry and Their Utility in Sustainability Assessment. TAPPI Journal :

July 2011, p. 19-27. 5*(:0,U]PYVUTLU[HS-VV[WYPU[*VTWHYPZVU;VVSO[[W!^^^ WHWLYLU]PYVUTLU[VYN^H[LYO[TS 22. American Forest & Paper Association (AF&PA). 2008. AF&PA ,U]PYVUTLU[HS/LHS[O:HML[`=LYPJH[PVU7YVNYHT)PLUUPHS9LWVY[ 2008. AF&PA, Washington, DC, USA. 23. Sappi Fine Paper North America. 2011. 2011 Sustainability Report. Sappi Fine Paper North America, Boston, MA. 24. Riebel, P.N.

and D. Borton. 2000. Bioassessment of the Aquatic System. Industrial Environmental Control Pulp and Paper Industry , 3rd edition, p. 29-64, Allan M. Springer, Ed., TAPPI Press, Atlanta, GA. 25. European Commission. 2001. Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) Reference Document on Best Available Techniques in the Pulp and Paper Industry. December 2001. 26. WBG, UN Environment Programme and the UN Industrial Development Organization. 1999. Pollution Prevention and Abatement Handbook 1999 Toward Cleaner Production. Industry Sector Guidelines, Pulp and Paper Mills. Pp. 395-400. World

Bank Group, Washington, DC. 27. U.S. EPA, Summary of the Clean Water Act, United States ,U]PYVUTLU[HS7YV[LJ[PVU(NLUJ`O[[W!^^^LWHNV]SH^ZYLNZSH^Z cwa.html 28. U.S. EPA, National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Title 40 Protection of the Environment, Part 430 The Pulp, Paper and 7HWLYIVHYK7VPU[:V\YJL*H[LNVY`O[[W!LJMYNWVHJJLZZNV]JNP[[L_[

[L_[PK_&J$LJMY[WS$LJMYIYV^ZL;P[SLJMYFTHPUF[WS  4HPUL+,74HPUL>H[LY8\HSP[`3H^ZO[[W!^^^THPULNV]KLW ^H[LYPUKL_O[TS

<:,7(6MJLVM(PYHUK9HKPH[PVU(]HPSHISLHUK,TLYNPUN Technologies for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from the Pulp and Paper Manufacturing Industry. Prepared by the Sector Policies and 7YVNYHTZ+P]PZPVU6MJLVM(PY8\HSP[`7SHUUPUNHUK:[HUKHYKZ<: EPA, Research Triangle Park, N.C., October 2010. 31. Bryant, P.S,

E.W. Malcolm and C.P. Woitkovich. 1995. Pulp and Paper Mill Water Use in North America. IPST Technical Paper Series Number 601, Institute of Paper Science and Technology, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia. 32. Ceres. 2011. The Ceres Aqua Gauge: A Framework for 21st Century Water Risk Management. Ceres, WBCSD, Irbaris, and IRRC Institute. O[[W!^^^JLYLZVYNPZZ\LZ^H[LYHX\HNH\NLHX\HNH\NL 33. World Business Council for Sustainable Development. Global Water

;VVSO[[W!^^^^IJZKVYN^VYRWYVNYHTZLJ[VYWYVQLJ[Z^H[LY global-water-tool.aspx 34. United Nations Global Compact. United Nations CEO Water Mandate. O[[W!^^^\UNSVIHSJVTWHJ[VYN0ZZ\LZ,U]PYVUTLU[*,6F>H[LYF4HUKH[L 35. Brown, R. 2011. Challenges in Reducing Water Use. Presentation given at Water Sustainability for the Pulp and Paper Industry, (AIChE & TAPPI) Nov. 10-11, 2011, Providence, RI. If you choose not to keep this

document, please pass it on to a friend or recycle it. 2012 Sappi Fine Paper North America. All Rights Reserved. All Web links validated as of July 31 , 2012. >LPU]P[L`V\[VZOHYL`V\Y[OV\NO[ZZV[OH[^LJHUHSSILUL[ from innovative thinking and best practices. For questions and comments on this document, please email us at