ALARM-NET: Wireless Sensor Networks for Assisted-Living

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ALARM-NET: Wireless Sensor Networks for Assisted-Living - Description

and Residential Monitoring. Presented by,. Swathi. Krishna . Kilari. A. Wood, G. . Virone. , T. Doan, Q. Cao, L. . Selavo. , Y. Wu, L. Fang, Z. He, S. Lin, J. . Stankovic. Department of Computer Science. ID: 727555 Download Presentation

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ALARM-NET: Wireless Sensor Networks for Assisted-Living




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Presentations text content in ALARM-NET: Wireless Sensor Networks for Assisted-Living

Slide1

ALARM-NET: Wireless Sensor Networks for Assisted-Living and Residential Monitoring

Presented by,Swathi Krishna Kilari

A. Wood, G.

Virone

, T. Doan, Q. Cao, L.

Selavo

, Y. Wu, L. Fang, Z. He, S. Lin, J.

Stankovic

Department of Computer Science

University of Virginia

Slide2

ContentsAbstract

IntroductionRelated WorkALARM-NET ArchitectureQuery ManagementCircadian Activity Rhythms

Dynamic Context-Aware

Privacy

Network and Data

Security

Context-Aware Power

Management

Data

Association

Implementation

Hardware and Sensors

Software

System

Evaluation and

Performance

Conclusion

Slide3

AbstractALARM-NET, a wireless sensor network

integrates environmental and physiological sensors in a scalable, heterogeneous architecture.A query protocol allows real-time collection and

processing of sensor data by user interfaces

and back-end

analysis programs

.

One

such program

determines circadian

activity rhythms of residents, feeding activity

information back

into the sensor network to aid

context-aware power

management, dynamic privacy policies, and data

association.

Communication

is secured end-to-end to

protect sensitive

medical and operational information.

Slide4

IntroductionThe ALARM-NET system has been implemented as a network

of MICAz sensors, stargate gateways, iPAQ PDAs, and PCs.

Software

components include:

Tiny OS query

processor and security modules for motes;

AlarmGate

, an

embedded Java application for managing power,

privacy, security

, queries, and client connections;

Java

resident

monitoring and

sensor data querying applications for PDAs

and PCs

;

a

circadian activity rhythm analysis program.

Slide5

Example: Assisted Living Deployment

Person

Person w/Body Network

Backbone node

Sensor node

Fig:

Assisted-living deployment example, showing connections among sensors, body networks, and back- bone nodes

.

Slide6

Related WorkResearchers at Intel Research Seattle and the

University of Washington have built a prototype system that can infer a person's activities of daily living.University of Rochester is building The Smart Medical Home ,

which is a

five-room house.

Georgia Tech built an Aware

Home

as a

prototype for

an intelligent space

.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and TIAX, LLC are working on the

PlaceLab initiative [8], which is a part of the House n project.Researchers at Harvard have developed a suite of

wireless sensors and software called CodeBlue for a range of medical applications.University

of Washington's Assisted Cognition project incorporates novel computer systems enhancing the quality of life of people suffering from Alzheimer's Disease and

similar cognitive disorders.

Slide7

ALARM-NET ArchitectureALARM-NET integrates heterogeneous devices in a common

architecture, spanning wearable body networks, emplaced wireless sensors, and IP-network elements.Components:Body Networks

Emplaced

Sensors

AlarmGate

Back-end

User Interfaces

Slide8

Contd.

In−

Network Interfaces:

SeeMote

Mobile Body

Networks:

Pulse

, SpO2,

ECG, Accelerometer

Emplaced Sensor Network:

Temperature, Dust,

Motion, Light

PDA

Alarm Gate

IP Network

PC

User Interfaces

Database

Analysis

Back-End

Fig: ALARM-NET

architecture components

and logical topology

Slide9

Query ManagementReal-time data queries are an important functionality

in ALARM-NET, enabling user interaction with the running system and automatic data collection.Queries are identified by <source, ID> tuples, and

request a

certain type of sensor data about a subject

.

For a single-shot query, the sensor samples the

requested data

and returns a single report to the originator,

completing the

transaction

.Periodic queries are issued with a given sample period

.A separately specified report period allows multiple samples to

be collected and aggregated into a single report using various lightweight aggregation functions.For integration with power management, queries are given

a priority.

Slide10

Contd.Software

Components run on the AlarmGate and on motes.The properly translated and authorized query is sent to the sensor(s) in the

WSN, where

it is parsed by a Query

Processor.

Queries are originated by the system or by

users.

Single, stop, and reissue commands are designed to be

as small

as possible, for maximum

efficiency.

Slide11

Contd.Query Processor

Query

Query Parser

Data Cache

Report

Data Ready

Query Processor

Query

Query Parser

Data Cache

Report

Data Ready

Sampler

Filter

Reporter

Aggregator

Sensor Sampler

create

config

start

stop

destroy

dataReady

dataReady

dataReady

flush

EventSensor

PollableSensor

eventDetected

SplitPhaseSensor

getData

Motion

Heartbeat

Get data

dataReady

Sensor Driver

ECG

Pulse

Photo Shim

SpO2

Dust

Temp Shim

Weight

Voltage Shim

Accel

Shim

Figure 3. Query processing stack on sensor devices.

The Query

Processor parses queries, and starts the

Sampler, which

reads data from the sensor drivers on

schedule, generating

data that

ows

up the processing chain

toward the

Query Processor for reporting.

Light

RSSI

Slide12

Circadian Activity RhythmsCAR supports context-aware protocols based on these

activities for dynamic alarm-driven privacy and smart heterogeneous power management.CAR supports a GUI, which displays various information related to the activity analysis.

Slide13

Contd.

Fig:

Circadian Activity Rhythms analysis GUI. Average time spent in every room per hour is graphed on the

left side

.

Sums

of daily deviations from the user's norm are on the right, showing a learning period after initial deployment.

Slide14

Dynamic Context-Aware PrivacyA

privacy protection framework is implemented which is dynamically adjustable to users' context.The main component of the privacy framework is the Privacy Manager module.Context,

identified by the

tuple <context id, context subject, context value>, is

the result

of domain expert

analysis.

The Privacy Manager resides in the

AlarmGate

application and has three main functional components:

the Context Manager, the Request Authorizer, and

the Auditor

Slide15

Contd.

Fig:

Privacy-related components in

ALARM-NET

Back−

end

Data

base

Privacy Manager

Context Update

Access Request

Access Decision

Audit Request

Context Manager

Authorizer

Request

Auditor

Context

Object

Role/User Object

Policy object

Audit Trail

Slide16

Network and Data SecuritySecurity of medical records and data is a vital part of ALARM-NET.

Access to an AlarmGate by user interfaces is limited to legitimate users of the system.After a client connects and authenticates,

communication between

it and the

AlarmGate

on the IP network is

encrypted whenever

sensor data is reported.

Messages

sent and

received to/from the WSN by the

AlarmGate must also be secured, using message authentication codes (MACs) and encryption when necessary.

Slide17

Contd.IP Network Security involves connections to the

Alarm-Gate from potentially any Internet host.Secure Remote Password (SRP) Protocol is used to authenticate clients to the

AlarmGate

.

The server and client agree a priori on a modulus

and generator.

The back-end database

stores the

tuple <username,

verifier

, salt>, where the salt is generated randomly

when the user is enrolled, and the verifier is derived from his password.

Slide18

Contd.WSN Security is provided by SecureComm

, a link-layer security suite we developed for MICAz and Telos motes.

Security−Aware Application

AMStandard

SecureComm

CC2420RadioC

CC2420SecurityC

KeyStore

KeyStore

ReceiveMsg

[]

ReceiveMsg

ReceiveMsg

BareSendMsg

BareSendMsg

SendMsg

Fig:

SecureComm

component wiring

Slide19

Contd.Internal Security functions in the

AlarmGate application include key management and auditing.AlarmGate shares a key with each sensor device that is a direct neighbor

.

Incoming secure messages from either network require

a lookup

to

find

the appropriate key in the

KeyStore

,

followed by decryption and/or MAC

verification.Outgoing messages also require a key lookup, followed by MAC computation and/or encryption if indicated

Slide20

Context-Aware Power ManagementALARM-NET supports a heterogeneous power

situation where some nodes are plugged into the wall and others operate on batteries.To satisfy all these power management

requirements,

a Context-aware and Open Power

Management (COPM

) module for ALARM-NET

is designed.

The COPM module uses four functional

components:

Sensor

Drivers Context Management

Circadian Activity Rhythm (CAR) and User

Interface

Slide21

Contd.

Fig:

Power Management components in ALARMNET

CAR

User Interface

Context Aware

Power

Management

Activity Pattern

Context

Policy

Commands

Sensor Drivers

Commands

Detection

Slide22

Data AssociationIn ALARM-NET, a data association

program is implemented that uses low cost, heterogeneous, ubiquitous sensors.ALARM-NET uses Dempster-Shafer evidential theory which is a probability-based data

fusion

classification

algorithm

.

Slide23

ImplementationHardware and Sensors:

MICAz by Crossbow and Telos Sky by MoteIV as the base for the sensor nodes

.

Users can

access ALARM-NET

through desktop computers over the

Internet or

iPAQ

PDA or LCD-enabled mote devices

wirelessly.

To detect motion we

modified the commercially available wireless motion sensor HawkEye MS13A for X-10 networks

.A dust sensor module for MICAz motes is built.

SeeMote is designed and implemented , an LCD module that

serves as a user interface device attachable to the MICAz motes.

Slide24

Contd.Software:

Sensor device software stackAlarmGate software stack.Back-end analysis and storage.

Query processor

Power Manager

Sampler

Secure

Comm

Sensor Driver

Routing

Sensor HW

Network

Query Manager

Privacy Manager

Power Manager

Database Interface

Secure

Comm

Audit Log

Authentication

Phoenix Source

Routing

Client Manager

Sensor Network

IP Network

Circadian Activity Rhythm Analysis

Data Association

Database

(a) Sensor device software stack

(b)

AlarmGate

software stack.

(c) Back-end analysis and storage

Slide25

System Evaluation and PerformanceIntegration and Back-End Analysis

Fig: Simulated Residence

Slide26

Contd.Privacy-Aware Queries

A wearable pulse rate sensor to the resident and an environmental temperature sensor to the living room are added.A user of the system, a technician, connects to the

AlarmGate

and

issues a single query for the environmental

temperature of

the resident's

unit.

The

simulated resident then moved around the living space in a manner different from the behavior

profile learned.

Slide27

Contd.Context-Aware Power Management

For this analysis, we classified certain combinations of sensors that can be used in ALARM-NET to define the

following four

typical power modes:

Environment

Sense (ES): A mote in ES enables

the light

, temperature and acoustic sensing components,

as well

as the radio to send the sensing report.

Body Sense (BS): A mote in BS is typically involved

in a body network. It should enable the accelerometer to report the resident's movement and the radio.Standby

: A mote in Standby has the Radio on and ready to receive or transmit data, but all the sensors are turned off.Sleep

: When the mote is in the sleep mode, the radio and all the sensors are turned off.

Slide28

Contd.Some basic context policies are:

Policy 1: For M-motes, keep the motion sensor on and the radio off until a motion interrupt turns it on.Policy 2: When the resident is sleeping, all the E-motes and the B-mote switch to the Sleep mode.

Policy

3: When the resident is awake, the

B-mote should

stay in the BS mode, the E-motes in the

room where

the resident is staying switch to the ES

mode, and

all other E-motes go to Standby mode.

Slide29

Contd.

(a) Power Measurement with disabled components

Components Supply

Current

All enabled

45.0

mA

Temp disabled

44.9

Light disabled

44.9

Accel disabled 44.4Magnet disabled

35.1Acoustic disabled 44.0Radio disabled

19.2(b) Power Measurement in different power modesPower Modes Supply

CurrentES 33.9mABS 33.4mA

Standby

32.8mA

Sleep

6.2mA

(c) Power Measurement of motion

sensor

Motion Sensor

Supply

Current

All components enabled

32.5mA

Motion sensor

disabled 32.5mA

Radio disabled 7.1mA

Slide30

Contd.Embedded Code Details

Java code for the PDA and stargate easily fit within their memory constraints.

Code

sizes given are the sizes of

the class files

, including the JDBC connector, crypto library,

and

PhoenixSource

and its

dependences.

Application Lines Code Size Data SizeSensorMote

7224 23158 2031SensorMote-alone 7224 13334 1638

AlarmGate 7429 1342241 --PDA Query Issuer 8210 340950

--

Slide31

ConclusionALARM-NET, a wireless sensor network designed

for long-term health monitoring in the assisted living and residential environments.A central design goal was to adapt the operation of the system, including

power management

and privacy policy

enforcement.

To associate data

with the proper individual,

we

use

sensor data

and Dempster-Shafer evidential theory

.For protection of medical information IP and WSN communication is secured with SRP and

SecureComm.

Slide32


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