Copyright

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© 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. . . Figure 7.1.2.1. . . Degrees of Eye Protection from Simulated Splashes Using Varied Types of Eye Protection. The . mannequin . faces on the right show how effective each type of eye protection is against a chemical splash. Only the chemical splash goggles.... ID: 395056 Download Presentation

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Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Figure 7.1.2.1. Degrees of Eye Protection from Simulated Splashes Using Varied Types of Eye Protection. The mannequin faces on the right show how effective each type of eye protection is against a chemical splash. Only the chemical splash goggles provide adequate protection and are the only acceptable form of eye protection in chemistry laboratories. (Courtesy of Linda Stroud, Ph.D., Science & Safety Consulting Services, Copyright © 2008 Science & Safety Consulting Services, Inc., Raleigh, NC)

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Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Figure 7.1.2.2 Various Safety Glasses. Safety glasses with side shields can provide some protection against flying shrapnel but are ineffective against chemical splashes. Only glasses that are ANSI/ASSE Z87.1 are acceptable.

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Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Figure 7.1.2.3 Chemical Splash Goggles. These goggles provide excellent splash protection and are relatively comfortable to wear, if sized properly.

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Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Figure 7.1.3.1 Broken Glass Container. Broken laboratory glass, if uncontaminated by chemical residues, should be placed in a container such as this.

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Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Figure 7.1.3.2 Various Types of Protective Gloves Used in Laboratories. Many styles of gloves, made with many different kinds of materials, are available. It is important to select the right glove to protect against the particular hazard. Degree of protection and dexterity vary considerably. There is no “universal” glove.

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Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Figure 7.1.3.3 How to Remove Lab Gloves to Minimize Hand Exposure. When removing the first glove, turn is inside-out (so the any contamination becomes wrapped up inside the glove), and hold this inverted glove palm of the other hand. When removing the second gloves, turn this inside-out as well and pull it over the first glove. When done, the exposed, nested gloves will have only the inside surface of the second glove exposed to the hands.

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Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Figure 7.1.3.4 Tongs and Forceps Used in Laboratories. Use the right tool for the job. The beaker tongs with the rubber coatings are good for hot beakers but should not be used for really hot crucibles since this will melt the rubber.

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Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Figure 7.1.4.1 Laboratory Hood with a Vertical Sash. Sashes should always be closed except when arms and hands need to be accessing something inside the chemical hood. This both saves energy (for many modern hoods) and provides a shield against explosions and fires.

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Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Figure 7.1.4.2 Laboratory Hood with Horizontal Sashes. These hoods are less frequently used, but can offer similar protection as the vertical sash as long as they are not removed and the openings are kept to minimum size during operations and use.

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Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Figure 7.2.1.1 Face Shield. A face shield can be used to get even more and better protection for the face and neck. Chemical splash goggles must still be worn under the face shield.

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Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Figure 7.2.1.2. Safety Shield. Figures a and b show different styles of portable safety shields. These are designed to withstand impacts without shattering or easily falling over.

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Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Figure 7.2.2.1 Permeation Test Cell. This diagram illustrates the construction of an apparatus to test the ability of glove materials to withstand permeation by a solvent.

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Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Figure 7.2.3.1 Features of a Laboratory Hood. It is important to understand the function of the various parts of a chemical hood to use a hood effectively. If the chemical hood is used without understand the dynamics of airflow, you may think you are protected from exposure to the interior atmosphere of the chemical hood when you are not. (Courtesy of Labconco, Inc., Kansas City, MO.)

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Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Figure 7.2.3.2 Air Flow in a Laboratory Hood. This idealized situation can be compromised by inappropriate materials in the hood, poor air flow, or rapid arm movement that can allow the interior atmosphere to flow back into the laboratory.

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Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Figure 7.2.3.3 Vaneometer ® Used for Measuring Air Flows in Laboratory Hoods. These inexpensive devices can give a reasonable indication of airflow under a particular set of circumstances. (Courtesy of Dwyer Instruments, Inc., Michigan City, IN)

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Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Figure 7.2.3.4 Glovebox. Gloveboxes are usually used in chemistry laboratories more for the protection of chemicals than lab personnel. Chemicals that are air- and/or water-sensitive can be used in these closed environments. This picture does not shown a tank of nitrogen or argon that would usually be used as the interior atmosphere or various pumps and re-circulating systems. The antechamber on the right is used to transfer materials in and out of the glovebox without allowing the laboratory atmosphere to enter the interior of the glovebox. (Courtesy of Labconco, Inc., Kansas City, MO)

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Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Figure 7.2.3.5 Laboratory Ventilation Snorkel. These snorkels can be used in limited situations when “spot” ventilation is required but they do not effectively remove all air contaminants from a particular location.

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Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Figure 7.2.3.6 Laboratory Balance in Plastic Box. Some boxes can be constructed to allow equipment to be used inside.

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Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Figure 7.2.3.7 Phase Diagram. Sublimation of a substance can occur at particular pressure-temperature conditions below the triple point, in the lower left of the diagram where the compound can move from the solid phase to the gas phase without going through the liquid phase. Although it is more common to experience a liquid vaporizing than a solid subliming, anytime you can smell a solid, you are experiencing the result of sublimation.

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Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Figure 7.3.1.1 Explosion Proof Refrigerator for Laboratories. These refrigerators are usually hard-wired into electrical supplies (so that they cannot accidentally become unplugged) and they have spark-proof interiors (internal switches and lights have been removed).

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Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Figure 7.3.2.1 Ludlum Geiger-Müller Counter. These portable meters are routinely used to monitor an area for the presence of radioactive materials during and after handling these materials in laboratory operations. (Courtesy of Ludlum Measurements, Inc.)

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Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Figure 7.3.4.1 Components of a HEPA Filter. a. Borosilicate Glass Woven Filter with Aluminum Separators (small folds). b. HEPA Filter Mounted in Wooden Box. (Taken from Figure 1 in CDC/NIH Primary Containment for Biohazards, 3rd Edition, 2007. found at http://www.cdc.gov/od/ohs/biosfty/primary_containment_for_biohazards.pdf)

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Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Figure 7.3.4.2 Schematic of Class II, Type A1 Biological Safety Cabinet. Air enters the BSC in the front opening where it is drawn through a grill in the cabinet floor by a blower (F) and into the common plenum (E). Part of this air is filtered through the supply HEPA filter (D) to provide clean air to the working surface, and the other portion of the air is exhausted through the exhaust HEPA filter (C). (Taken from Figure 3 in CDC/NIH Primary Containment for Biohazards, 3rd Edition, 2007. found at http://www.cdc.gov/od/ohs/biosfty/primary_containment_for_biohazards.pdf)

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Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Figure 7.3.4.3 Canopy Unit Exhaust Unit for Class II Type A1 BSC. The canopy unit (sometimes called the thimble) is designed to fit over the exhaust of the BSC but not tightly. There is a gap of about 1 inch between the canopy and the BSC exhaust so that air is also exhausted from the room. Canopy units are often used in small lab rooms where some exhaust ventilation is needed to remove chemical contaminants that might be in the air. (Taken from Figure 4 in CDC/NIH Primary Containment for Biohazards, 3rd Edition, 2007. found at http://www.cdc.gov/od/ohs/biosfty/primary_containment_for_biohazards.pdf)

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Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Figure 7.3.5.1 Disposable Mask Respirator, These disposal masks are easy to use but do not provide a tight seal against the face. Hospital personnel often wear these kinds of masks but sometime in situation to protect the patient, not health care personnel, such as in surgery. These masks should rarely be considered for use in a laboratory. (Copyright 3M, St. Paul, Minnesota)

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Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Figure 7.3.5.2 Cartridge Respirators, As with disposable masks, these respirators should rarely be considered for use in a laboratory. (Copyright 3M, St. Paul, Minnesota)

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Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Figure 7.3.5.3 Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) being used by firemen outside of a residential fire. Chemists would not wear SCBA. These devices are used only by emergency personnel or someone doing routine work in a confined space. The arrow points out author, David Finster, who is also a volunteer firefighter.

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Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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