li an ed o c an any en ir on en con hat ou he na al pe es h nd ri ne h n he S a d e
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li an ed o c an any en ir on en con hat ou he na al pe es h nd ri ne h n he S a d e

ges in these factors could favor the growth of ul al oo and habitat changes such that marine HABs can invade and occur in freshwater n nc ea n oc en nd en it of ha ul a al oo s ne ti pact he en ir on en hu an he lt and he cono or co un iti es oss

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li an ed o c an any en ir on en con hat ou he na al pe es h nd ri ne h n he S a d e




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li an ed o c an any en ir on en con hat ou he na al pe es h nd ri ne h n he S a d e. ges in these factors could favor the growth of ul al oo and habitat changes such that marine HABs can invade and occur in freshwater . n nc ea n oc en nd en it of ha ul a al oo s ne ti pact he en ir on en , hu an he lt , and he cono or co un iti es oss he S and ound he d. he pu pose of act sh et o p li chan es ch ers and dec a su of he ti pact of li han e on ha ul al oo s esh and ri ne ec s. lt oug h much of the dence presented in this fact sheet su gg es s hat problem of ul a al oo may worsen

under future climate scenarios , es ch nee ed o be er und and he ass on b een e chan and ul Mi ro ys oom n L ke ea ah a, , Augus 2010. ur esy of es yde, DOH ae occ n ri ne and esh . nder nd ons that include adequate li ht a il it , s, nd h h nu ent s, a ae can grow and lti aus ng oo s. Blooms o ae an cause damage to qu ti c en ir on ent by oc ng un li ht and ep ng ox yg en equ ed by qua an s, ng h a su . So spe es of ae, ng golden and red algae and ce pes of anob a, can odu hat an ause ad e hea h ec o wildlife d hu ans, such as da o he er d erv ous . When a al b oo pa ua eco sy or ha he po al

o ect hu an hea h, hey no n s ha ul al oo (HABs) n ecent cad s, ha obs ed an nc ea n the equ nc , se it and eo aph c bu on of HABs rl e. ecent se ch su gg es at he pac li e chan may promote he and do nan of ha ul al oo ug h a ri of echan nc ud Warmer er pe Changes in Increases in osphe n d ox conc han es n pa ns ens ng of co al ng Sea el se Harmful algae typically bloom during the warm summer season or when water temperatures are warmer than usual. s pe be er ch e, h f ha ul ae may be favored over other on harmful algae ou h a co na on f echan s: ar er per es re a co it ve advan age or ce n

ypes of ae. seen it he uc ng anoba ri Mi ro ys rt n ul ae grow faster Office of Water EPA 820 13 001 MC 4304T May 2013 Impacts of Climate Change on the Occurrence of Harmful Algal Blooms
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n o her non harmful algae ti y h h pe s, so of hem at pe es abo 77 F. co pe ti ti ad an ea es he li hood of HAB events. ar er per es nc re ase her l ca on, ng he gro h some ga The density of water is stro gly influenced by temperature and varies with depth in the water column. Surface waters are usually warmer and less dense compared to bottom waters that re usually colder and denser. ri ng su

er on hs, warmin g of surface waters can create cal ce ong enou h o st ab o x he . se can he rti al ent of ox yg en and nu n oc ss s no n as al fi he ng of su ce eas he fr uenc , tr en h, and du on on, ch he of ha ul al oo s. anobac and dinoflagellates ha it o on ol de h n . n s ed er s, these algae can oat or swim up ds dense su rf ace oo ock he un ht ae and aqu li dee er and ab o o rf ce. nder ed con ons, these algae ay so encou ess co pe ti on or ri su e , ng he pe ad an e. M st b oo ng anobac ri can as es es, ng po on a d ti ng up and do o o n om deeper s il ng he su ce as oo s. ar er per

es ease he co of er, or ng of har ul al oo s. sco es ri on ness of fl . hat ha her sco it li ne , a e , and do n ow as ea il as li ds h a er co , such Wa er pe es he co it of r, ch ea es he spe d h s qu ti c an can ti e. es t eas er or ano ac ri fl at he ace o ha ul al s. n he and, a dec ea n co it es he ng of er a ae and an hat not cap f ti ng ds he rf ce. ay nc se he pe ti ad an of c anob er o ae. ar ul oo he se es rea er pe re, her vo ng gro wt h. ul al oo s ab so b ht om he sun ch ea es he pe rf ce . positive feedback mechanism h of ul al oo and p es co pe ti ad an n aqua ec s. li an ay

cause su er ou o nc ea n and d on rl de. ri ng ou he ount of ng es and es ir de ses. Combined with w er pe es that cause apo ti n, er sh er od es dec ea e. This causes he , or cen ti on of sa in the water body to nc ea . lt hou h ox oduc ng anobac po y nc ea es n can o cau s ea ng ea of nd he se ox s. Increases in salinity during drought conditions can also create favorable conditions for the invasion of marine algae into what are usually freshwater ecosystems. This is currently occurring in our southwestern and south central US lakes where marine alga, Prymnesium parvu m, or golden algae ,

has been increasing since 2000 , causing significant fish kills in inland waters . l algae, including h ul species, req bon ) or ho he s. Increases in tmospheric c bon will increase the levels of dissolved c bon in marine and freshwater ecosystems, favoring those algae that can grow faster in elevated dissolved c bon e conditions. In addition, c ya noba an t o ace ad an er r co pe ti ng lgae because hey can d ir utilize bon ox de om he a osphe . osphe ca bon de conce ons ase due o human activities such as the burning of fossil fuels and deforestation, anobac n o he ace ha e ea ce ca bon de or

h, nc ea ng he occ ence ha ul al oo This also could lead to changes in the chemistry of ambient waters. Higher photosynthesis converts carbon dioxide into living algal biomass, some of which dies and settles to the bottom. The eventual decomposition of this surplus organic material is
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anal ogous to our own breathing activity because it consumes oxygen and increases carbon dioxide in areas with poor circulation. This can contribute to increases in acidity (i.e., lower pH). This ecological source of acidification is added to the direct acidi fying effects of atmospheric carbon

dioxide, commonly known as ocean acidification. Like temperature, these changes in water chemistry can change the competitive relationships between HABs and other algae, and can also change the ability of zooplankton to control HABs through their grazing activity. Future cl ti ns suggest an increase in extreme weather events. For exa e, en of en ca ng o cc n co ncen ed bu s ed by ong ri ds of ou ht may ea e. Extreme cou ase he tr sp fr om and o es via runoff If followed by drought conditions as is projected, water bodies may retain those or on er ds of ti e, ch nc ea es he al HAB development.

Sc ode at ea el c se fr om 18 cm up o one by he ear 21 0. s ou d nc ea co ti en al sh as, ng sh , s ab oas al may or h ul ae and/or expand their habitat inland oas up li ng ur ll oc ri ng ce s, n ch alongshore nds coas al ace er ff ho e which ep aced by deep er es ong he oc an fl as “upwelled er ri gs nu fr om he cean or he rf ce ea ng o h h odu ti . ul al oo h n up ng due o osphe ri os ti s up ng or do ng by ann al fl on , and su o er co n s on, n il ab , and ty and p ence of li cond ons. obal climate change may alter the timing and intensity of coastal upwelling. Along oc an bou da s, such

of S, upwelling may intensify and de er nu en ts o c as al s, ng he h bo h ha ul al oo s and en n sp s. For ti n on and an e, t // .ep sc it ch ech n ab ut ul al oo s, o o: tt o.usa. EPA gratefully acknowledges the valuable contribution from Christopher Sibrizzi, George Washington University, and Dr. Stephanie Moore, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, West Coast Center for Oceans and Human Health, NOAA , in developi ng this work.