The Immune Syste m Before the 1900’s, no one knew what caused sickness and infection PowerPoint Presentation, PPT - DocSlides
Most people thought evil spirits, swamp gas, or bad luck caused disease. science history. Louis Pasteur. Theorized that microbes caused disease and killing them could prevent illness.. Joseph Lister. ID: 691390Direct Link: Link:https://www.docslides.com/lindy-dunigan/the-immune-syste-m-before-the-1900-s-no-one-knew-what-caused-sickness-and-infection Embed code:
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Presentations text content in The Immune Syste m Before the 1900’s, no one knew what caused sickness and infection
The Immune SystemSlide2
Before the 1900’s, no one knew what caused sickness and infection
Most people thought evil spirits, swamp gas, or bad luck caused diseaseSlide3
Theorized that microbes caused disease and killing them could prevent illness.
Theorized that microbes caused infection. One of the first surgeons to disinfect instruments.
Began linking certain pathogens to certain illnesses. Example:
causes food poisoning.Slide4
To keep out or to fight pathogens that enter your body.
To recognize and attack foreign substances in the body.Slide5
white blood cells
pathogen – something that causes illness. Pathogens can be a virus, bacteria, protein, fungi or
Your body’s first line of defense against pathogens is to create a barrier.
Your skin acts as a barrier to keep pathogens out.Slide9
Small hairs in your nose and trachea help trap pathogens.
They can cause you to sneeze or cough to try and expel the pathogens.Slide10
mouth and stomach
Saliva and stomach acid can kill some pathogens.
Vomiting can also expel pathogens.Slide11
If a pathogen makes it past the external defenses, the internal defenses begin;
– happens with cuts and injuries
fever – body raises your temperature to try and kill the pathogens.immune response – white blood cells are produced.Slide12
white blood cells
– cells that travel though the bloodstream and body searching out pathogens. The three types are macrophages, T cells and B cells.Slide13
Destroys pathogens by engulfing and digesting them.Slide14
Helper T cells travel throughout the body looking for pathogens.
Killer T cells attack certain pathogens.Slide15
B cells produce chemicals (antibody) that destroy pathogens.
Antibodies fight disease.Slide16
the immune response
A pathogen enters the body
A macrophage finds it, engulfs and destroys it.
A helper T cell finds it
activates a killer T cell destroys the pathogen
finds a B cell to release antibodies to destroy the pathogenSlide17Slide18
The body builds immunity against a disease when it is exposed to pathogens.
– the ability to resist or recover from an infectious disease. You are born with some immunities, develop some from being exposed to pathogens and can be vaccinated for others.Slide19
Your body has billions of T and B cells but it doesn’t produce very many for each pathogen.
Once you are exposed to a certain pathogen, like chicken pox, your T and B cells produce memory cells.
The next time you are exposed to that pathogen, the memory cells trigger the production of a large number of T and B cells for that pathogen.Slide20
– a substance prepared from killed or weakened pathogens that is introduced into the body to provide immunity.
The vaccine triggers the body to make memory cells.
Edward Jenner was the first scientist to create a vaccine. It was for small pox.Slide21
challenges to the immune system
A healthy immune system is very good at keeping us from being sick.
However, we are exposed to challenges to out immune systems all the time.
- disorder in which the immune system is overly sensitive to a foreign substance.
- disease in which cells multiply uncontrollably, destroying healthy tissue.
Can exist in a tumor or can spread in the blood.
– some disease cause the immune system to become weak.
The most common for humans is HIV which is the virus that causes AIDS. It causes the immune system to fail.Slide25
The virus that causes aids
The virus gets into T cells and reproduces inside of them
As the T cells die, the body loses it’s ability to fight diseaseSlide26
– a disease in which the immune system attacks itself.
Rheumatoid arthritis is one example.Slide27
Preventing Infectious Disease
Don’t share items that touch your mouth
Wash hands frequently
Cover mouth when sneezing or coughing
Get 8 hours of sleep
Eat a well-balanced diet