The Immune Syste m Before the 1900’s, no one knew what caused sickness and infection PowerPoint Presentation, PPT - DocSlides

The Immune Syste m Before the 1900’s, no one knew what caused sickness and infection PowerPoint Presentation, PPT - DocSlides

2018-10-21 3K 3 0 0

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Most people thought evil spirits, swamp gas, or bad luck caused disease. science history. Louis Pasteur. Theorized that microbes caused disease and killing them could prevent illness.. Joseph Lister. ID: 691390

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Presentations text content in The Immune Syste m Before the 1900’s, no one knew what caused sickness and infection

Slide1

The Immune System

Slide2

Before the 1900’s, no one knew what caused sickness and infection

Most people thought evil spirits, swamp gas, or bad luck caused disease

Slide3

science history

Louis Pasteur

Theorized that microbes caused disease and killing them could prevent illness.

Joseph Lister

Theorized that microbes caused infection. One of the first surgeons to disinfect instruments.

Robert Koch

Began linking certain pathogens to certain illnesses. Example:

botulinum

causes food poisoning.

Slide4

Functions

To keep out or to fight pathogens that enter your body.

To recognize and attack foreign substances in the body.

Slide5

organs

skin

white blood cells

macrophage

T cell

B cell

Slide6

pathogen – something that causes illness. Pathogens can be a virus, bacteria, protein, fungi or

protist

.

virus

bacteria

protein

fungiprotist

Slide7

external defenses

Your body’s first line of defense against pathogens is to create a barrier.

skin

breathing passages

mouth

stomach

Slide8

skin

Your skin acts as a barrier to keep pathogens out.

Slide9

breathing passages

Small hairs in your nose and trachea help trap pathogens.

They can cause you to sneeze or cough to try and expel the pathogens.

Slide10

mouth and stomach

Saliva and stomach acid can kill some pathogens.

Vomiting can also expel pathogens.

Slide11

internal defenses

If a pathogen makes it past the external defenses, the internal defenses begin;

i

nflammation

– happens with cuts and injuries

fever – body raises your temperature to try and kill the pathogens.immune response – white blood cells are produced.

Slide12

Immune response

white blood cells

– cells that travel though the bloodstream and body searching out pathogens. The three types are macrophages, T cells and B cells.

Slide13

macrophages

Destroys pathogens by engulfing and digesting them.

Slide14

T Cells

Helper T cells travel throughout the body looking for pathogens.

Killer T cells attack certain pathogens.

Slide15

B Cells

B cells produce chemicals (antibody) that destroy pathogens.

Antibodies fight disease.

Slide16

the immune response

A pathogen enters the body

A macrophage finds it, engulfs and destroys it.

A helper T cell finds it

activates a killer T cell destroys the pathogen

finds a B cell to release antibodies to destroy the pathogen

Slide17

Slide18

building immunity

The body builds immunity against a disease when it is exposed to pathogens.

immunity

– the ability to resist or recover from an infectious disease. You are born with some immunities, develop some from being exposed to pathogens and can be vaccinated for others.

Slide19

building immunity

Your body has billions of T and B cells but it doesn’t produce very many for each pathogen.

Once you are exposed to a certain pathogen, like chicken pox, your T and B cells produce memory cells.

The next time you are exposed to that pathogen, the memory cells trigger the production of a large number of T and B cells for that pathogen.

Slide20

vaccination

vaccine

– a substance prepared from killed or weakened pathogens that is introduced into the body to provide immunity.

The vaccine triggers the body to make memory cells.

Edward Jenner was the first scientist to create a vaccine. It was for small pox.

Slide21

challenges to the immune system

A healthy immune system is very good at keeping us from being sick.

However, we are exposed to challenges to out immune systems all the time.

allergies

cancer

immune deficiency

auto-immune disease

Slide22

allergy

- disorder in which the immune system is overly sensitive to a foreign substance.

pollen

dust

mold

food

medicineanimals

Slide23

cancer

- disease in which cells multiply uncontrollably, destroying healthy tissue.

Can exist in a tumor or can spread in the blood.

Cause:

genetics

chemicals

Slide24

immune deficiency

– some disease cause the immune system to become weak.

The most common for humans is HIV which is the virus that causes AIDS. It causes the immune system to fail.

Slide25

HIV Virus

The virus that causes aids

The virus gets into T cells and reproduces inside of them

As the T cells die, the body loses it’s ability to fight disease

Slide26

auto-immune disease

– a disease in which the immune system attacks itself.

Rheumatoid arthritis is one example.

Slide27

Preventing Infectious Disease

Don’t share items that touch your mouth

Wash hands frequently

Cover mouth when sneezing or coughing

Get 8 hours of sleep

Eat a well-balanced diet

Regular exercise

Slide28


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