DOPING Benedetta Biondi Eleonora Cardella

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Raffaele de . Santis. Luca Di Vito. Lorenzo . Sarracco. Doping in sport. In competitive sports, . doping. refers to the use of banned athletic performance-enhancing drugs by athletic competitors, where the term . ID: 644362 Download Presentation

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DOPING Benedetta Biondi Eleonora Cardella




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Presentations text content in DOPING Benedetta Biondi Eleonora Cardella

Slide1

DOPING

Benedetta Biondi

Eleonora Cardella

Raffaele de

Santis

Luca Di Vito

Lorenzo

Sarracco

Slide2

Doping in sport

In competitive sports,

doping

refers to the use of banned athletic performance-enhancing drugs by athletic competitors, where the term

doping

is widely used by organizations that regulate sporting competitions. Doping is considered unethical by most international sports organizations.

WADA (World Anti-Doping Agency) is a foundation initiated by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) based in Canada to promote, coordinate and monitor the fight against drugs in sports.

Slide3

History of doping

The use of

drugs

in

sports

started with the creation of the sport itself. Even during the ancient Olympic Games in Greece the athletes drank herbal infusion to increase their abilities before competitions.About the origins of the word doping, there are many suggestions. One of these says that is derived from dop, a South African alcoholic drink. Another one says that derives from the doop, that was the mix of tabacco and other substances that caused hallucinations and confusion.

Slide4

Doping effects

Anabolic

Agents

Physiological

:

acne, male pattern baldness, liver damage, premature closure of the growth centers of long bones (in adolescents) which may result in stunted growth, stunted growth and disruption of puberty in children.Psychological: increased aggressiveness and sexual appetite, sometimes resulting in abnormal sexual and criminal behavior, often referred to as “Roid Rage”; withdrawal from anabolic steroid use can be associated with depression, and in some cases, suicide.Peptide Hormones, Growth Factors, and Related SubstancesPhysiological: hypertension, blood cancers/leukemia, anemia, strokes, heart attacks, pulmonary embolism, feminization, thyroid problems.t

Some

people

,

as

weightlifters

and

bodybuilders

in

particular

, use

this

kind

of

drugs

daily

, just to

increase

their

abilities

without

overdo

it

.

Anyway

,

these

drugs

are,

if

used

even

in small

quantities

,

dangerous

both

for the body and for the

mind

.

Slide5

Human

Growth

Hormone

Physiological: severe headaches, loss of vision, acromegaly (protruding or enlarged jaw, brow, skull, hands and feet), high blood pressure and heart failure, diabetes and tumors, crippling arthritis.StimulantsPhysiological: insomnia, anxiety, weight loss, dependence and addiction, dehydration, tremors, increased heart rate and blood pressure, increased risk of stroke, heart attack, and cardiac arrhythmia.NarcoticsPhysiological: a false sense of invincibility, nausea and vomiting, increased pain threshold and failure to recognize injury, decreased heart rate, physical and psychological dependence, leading to addiction.

Slide6

Ben Johnson

Benjamin Johnson

was

a Canadian sprinter,

who

won two bronze medals at the Olympic Games and a gold one, also at the Olympic Games, that was later rescinded because of his use of drug before the competition. Before he was squalified for doping, he set two consecutive 100 metres world records (1987 and 1988). In 1988 he was suspended

for

two

years

and in 1991 he

attempted

a

comeback

.

He returned to the track for the Hamilton Indoor Games in 1991 and was greeted by the largest crowd to ever attend an indoor Canadian track and field event. He failed to qualify for the 1991 World Championships in Tokyo but made the Canadian Olympic team again in 1992 in Barcelona, Spain after finishing second at the Canadian Olympic trials to

Bruny

Surin

. He missed the 100

metre

finals at the Olympics, however, finishing last in his semi-final heat after stumbling out of the blocks.

In 1999 he was positive to a second drug test for a diuretic, that can be used to mask the presence of other drugs. He had not competed since 1993, but in 1999 he definitely retired.

Slide7

Lance Armstrong

Lance Edward Armstrong

was

an American

American former professional road racing cyclist. Armstrong had won the Tour de France seven consecutive times from 1999 to 2005, before he was banned for life and all his results going back to August 1998 were voided, as a result of long-term doping offenses.

In 2005 the newspaper l’Equipe alleges that EPO was found in several samples provided by Armstrong during the 1999 Tour, when these were retested for research purposes. He was banned but in 2008 he announced his return to professional cycling and in 2009 he arrived third to the Tour de France and the in 2010 he arrived 23rd in his last Tour de France.In 2011 he announced his retirement and, in 2012, the Usada announced the cancellation of his seven titles in the Tour de France.

Slide8

Russian Team at the Olympic Game

On November 2015 WADA

announced

that

Russian team had falsified the results of some tests made in previous years, and announced that it was Russia's obligation to implement an effective anti-doping program compliant with the World Anti-Doping Code. On 21 June 2016, due to Russia's national anti-doping organization having been declared non-compliant with the World Anti-Doping Code, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) decided that the eligibility of all athletes to compete in the 2016 Olympics should be based on an individual case by case basis by the International Federation governing each sport. On 18 July 2016, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) presented a second more detailed report, finding that Russia's Ministry of Sport and Federal Security Service (FSB) had operated a "state-dictated" system to implement an extensive doping program and to cover up positive samples. On 24 July 2016, the IOC Executive Committee decided against completely banning Russian participation and instead decided to set additional, stricter requirements for all Russian participants entered into the Olympic Games. In the end WADA decided to exclude from the competition only the athletic team, except Darya Klishina, who was allowed to compete and arrived 9th in the long jump competition.


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