AntiDoping Policies The Athletic Trainers Role Are they really CHEATERS Nadine Waeghe ATC PT Objectives Overview of Doping Control Process Governing Bodies AntiDoping Organizations Legal Implications ID: 769641 Download Presentation
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Anti-Doping PoliciesThe Athletic Trainer’s Role Are they really CHEATERS? Nadine Waeghe, ATC, PT
Objectives Overview of Doping Control Process: Governing Bodies Anti-Doping Organizations Legal Implications Work Place Drug Policies Terminology Testing Procedures Staff / Officials Responsibility Athlete/Employee Responsibility Athletic Trainer Role
What do you THINK you KNOW?
What do you THINK you KNOW? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qXoRdSTrR-4 Barry Bonds MARION JONES LANCE ARMSTRONG Maria Sharapova ALEX RODRIGUEZ RUSSIAN OLYMPIC TEAM Michael Phelps
LAYERS RegulationEvent / VenueTeam / OrganizationLeague / Level Sport National International World LAYERS Implication
World Anti-Doping Agency The World Anti-Doping Agency was founded with the aim of bringing consistency to anti-doping policies and regulations within sport organizations and governments across the world. Code Compliance MonitoringEducationScientific ResearchLaboratory Accreditations Therapeutic Use Exemptions Athlete Biological Passport Anti-Doping Administration & Management System (ADAMS) Regional Anti-Doping Organization program Athlete Outreach Cooperation with Law Enforcement (all levels) Independent Observer Missions (undercover data collection) A world where ALL athletes can compete in a doping-free sporting environment.
National Paralympic Committees International Sports Federations for Athletes with an Impairment Organizations for Athletes with an Impairment Other International Federations Other OIC Recognized Organizations AIMS International Organizations Members of the IPC ASOIF Members AIOWF Members Multi-Sport Organizations and Events National Anti-Doping Organizations Regional Anti-Doping Organizations APC IFCPF CISS/ICSD IPC WAF World Bowls Ltd. IFC WDC IeSF WKO KIF IKA IFMP IPSF RLIF ITF WTC UEFA EOC OCA ODESUR PASO/ODEPA GAISF IAF IFBB ICSF WDF IDBF FMJD IFA IGF IFI JJIF FIK WAKO FILx WMF IFMA IPF FIAS FIS ISTAF IFSS ISTF CIPS BIFED CPISRA IBSAINASIWASIWBFIWRFWPV WAIAAFBWFFIBAAIBAICFUCIFEIFIEIGFFIGIHFFIHIJFUIPMFISAWORLD RUGBYISAFISSFFINAITTFWTFITFITUFIVBIWFUWWFF IBUFIBTWCFIIHFFILISUFIS CACSOCIFJCGFCIJMCISMIMGAIOCFISUIWGAODEBOPOCOGGAISF Index of All National Anti-Doping Organizations* RADO Africa Zone IRADO Africa Zone II-IIIRADO Africa Zone VRADO Africa Zone VIRADO Central AfricaRADO CaribbeanRADO Central AmericaRADO Central AsiaRADO Eastern EuropeRADO Indian OceanRADO Gulf States and YemenRADO OceaniaRADO South AmericaRADO South AsiaRADO South East AsiaRADO West Asia ARISF Members FAI IFAF FIA FIB WBSC IBAF WCBS CMSB FIQ WBF ICU FIDE ICC IDSFIFFWFDFWKFIKFILSFFIMUIAAIFNAIOFFIPVFIPUIMIRFFIRSISMFIFSCWSFIFSISATWIFCMASIWWFIWUF
Organizations with AD RulesPro Sports : NFL, MLB, NHL, NBA, PGA, WTA / ATP, MLS, Boxing, Horse Racing, FIFA, NASCAR, UFCOlympic / International Sports: USADA governs official US Teams – Athletics, Ski/Snowboard, Swimming, Gymnastics, Wrestling, Boxing, Fencing… X-Games, Paralympics Collegiate Sports: NCAA, NAIA, NJCAAYouth / HS Sports: California Interscholastic Federation (CIF), Club Sports, Junior Olympic Competition Military Corporations Particular Jobs: heavy equipment operators, transportation…
Anti-Doping Enforcement What is policy for contesting or appealing violation allegations? Who determines extent of consequences?How are consequences served? What legal contract was signed and between what parties? What consequences were stated in writing for violation of contract? What are specific policies for collection and testing? What are stated policies for enforcement of violation? Who actually signed the contract of agreement? ( Esp if Minor) Who determines if act was a violation? Who carries out enforcement of violation?
Anti-Doping Terminology Prohibited at ALL TimesNon-Approved Substances: any pharmacological substance not addressed by the List with no current approval by any government regulatory health agency.Prohibited MethodsExceptions Prohibited in Particular Sports Monitoring Program In / Out of Competition In-Season vs Off-Season Injured Reserve At Event vs Between Events vs Multi-Events Whereabouts Program Registered Testing Pool Filing Failure Missed Test Doping Control Process / Testing Doping Control Station Doping Control Officer (DCO) Athlete Selection Sample Collection Sample Analysis Results management Athlete Sample A & B Adverse Analytical Finding Sanction Therapeutic Use Exemption (TUE) Calendar Year vs 12 Months Anti-Corruption Policies Covered Persons / Related Persons
Testing Procedures Athlete Selection RandomCompetition ResultsTargeted In or Out of Competition Athlete Notification Sample Collection Urine or Blood A & B Sample Athlete does all handling Sample Analysis Results Management https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sWhudwnE3Fg
Staff & Officials Responsibilities Athlete Support Team Coach Parent / Spouse / Family Agent / Manager Private PT / AT/ MT Sport Admin / Management Athletic Director Board/ CEO / Commissioner Marketing / Communications Event Supervisor Compliance Officer Medical Team Medical Director Sports Sciences Team Ancillary HCP Doping Control Reps DCO / Chaperone AD Testing Supervisor Testing Lab Personnel Review Committee/Board Governing AD Agency Rules Committee Sanctioning Board Legal Team Athlete Sport Organization WADA Law Enforcement
Athlete Responsibilities Read & Understand Athlete / Participation Contract. Review WADA & Sport Doping Policy 6 weeks before season begins and share with Support Team to ensure understanding. Carry Prohibited List at all times. Complete TUE ASAP & keep approval readily available to show if/when tested. Discuss with medical team prior to taking ANY substance, complete TUE in advance if possible. Check ALL Dietary Supplements (supplement411.org). Read EACH Entry Form / Registration Form. Ask / Inquire / Educate self throughout year. Know his/her Testing Pool & Whereabouts status. Know timing of testing procedures & filings. Know athlete RIGHTS during doping control process. Determine which agency has notified / is testing him/her. Ask for DCO credentials & understand his/her role. Comply with sample collection procedure. Prepare to show ID & have representative present if needed. Ask to document any irregularities in writing. Ensure Sample Code is correctly documented & all documentation is accurate, complete & signed. Athletes must ensure that all substances prohibited in competition have “cleared” from his/her body prior to participation in an event period.
Athletic Trainer RoleJoin the Team / Process Educate Pre SeasonAthletes CoachesFamilyMedical CommunityPPE – Review PhysicalsMeet with Individual Athletes Ensure TUEs completed & on file Provide Accessible Resources Handouts Posters Online / Links Collaborate with Dietitian Communicate with Private Medical & Healthcare Practitioners Be a Representative for athlete Document everything! Venus struggled to breathe. Could the tournament physician administer a Beta-2 Agonist inhaler on court during the match?
How are YOU supporting your athlete in regard to Anti-Doping Regulation?
Primary ReferencesWADA- https://www.wada-ama.org/en/content/what-is-prohibited USADA- https://www.usada.org/substances/prohibited-list/ Refers to this site: https://www.globaldro.com/Home as a place to check whether a substance you wish to take is banned in a variety of places and sportsChanges: https://www.usada.org/wp-content/uploads/wada_2019_english_summary_of_modifications.pdf NCAA- http://www.ncaa.org/sites/default/files/2018-19NCAA_Banned_Drugs_20180608.pdf NAIA- http://www.naia.org/fls/27900/wellness-center/pdf/NAIA_Banned_Substances_List.pdf IAAF- https://www.iaaf.org/about-iaaf/documents/anti-doping IOC- List for 2018 Olympics- https://www.olympic.org/~/media/Document%20Library/OlympicOrg/IOC/What-We-Do/Protecting-Clean-Athletes/Fight-against-doping/EN-Anti-Doping-Rules-PyeongChang2018.pdf?la=en US Track & Field- https://www.usatf.org/about/legal/antidoping/prohibitedSubstances.asp US Ski & Snowboard- https://my.ussa.org/alpine-programs/athletes/high-performance/sports-medicine/anti-doping Other Useful info- https://www.fis-ski.com/en/inside-fis/governance/fis-anti-doping FIS- https://res.cloudinary.com/fis-production/image/upload/v1537429916/fis-prod/assets/FISanti-dopingrules2016updatejuly2016_English.pdf US Swimming- https://www.usaswimming.org/utility/landing-pages/doping-control-group/doping-control FINA- http://www.fina.org/content/prohibited-list US Gymnastics- https://www.teamusa.org/Home/Team%20USA%20Athlete%20Services/Anti-Doping US Wrestling- https://www.teamusa.org/Home/Team%20USA%20Athlete%20Services/Anti-Doping California High School Sports- http://www.cifstate.org/sports-medicine/performance_enhancement Boxing- US Boxing List: https://www.teamusa.org/Home/Team%20USA%20Athlete%20Services/Anti-Doping AIBA List: https://d152tffy3gbaeg.cloudfront.net/2018/08/AIBA-Anti-Doping-Rules-August-1-2018.pdf PGA- https://www.usga.org/content/dam/usga/pdf/2018/2017-2018_Anti_Doping_Manual.PDF
Primary ReferencesMLB- http://mlb.mlb.com/pa/pdf/prohibited-substances.pdf NFL- https://www.nflpa.com/active-players/drug-policies https://nflpaweb.blob.core.windows.net/media/Default/PDFs/2018%20NFL%20PES%20Policy%20Prohibited%20Substances%20List.pdf NHL- Follows WADA rules NBA- Vague: https://www.nba.com/media/CBA101_9.12.pdf MLS- Adopted WADA policy according to the New York Times: https://www.nytimes.com/2005/03/29/sports/soccer/contract-has-strict-drug-policy.html Horse racing- Follows USADA rules within USA Tennis- Follows WADA rules FIFA- https://resources.fifa.com/image/upload/fifa-anti-doping-regulations.pdf?cloudid=ujtnvke2uqscz2pgs4ct X-Games - Follows WADA rules Special Olympics- Follows USADA rules within USA Paralympics- Follows USADA rules UFC- https://ufc.usada.org/wp-content/uploads/UFC-anti-doping-policy-EN.pdf NATA Position Statements- http://natajournals.org/doi/pdf/10.4085/1062-6050-47.5.08 https://www.nata.org/news-publications/pressroom/statements/position
*National Anti-Doping Organizations Index A-KAlbania - Ministry of Tourism, Culture, Youth and Sports Algeria - Commission Nationale Anti-DopageAndorra - Commission d’État antidopage d’Andorre (AGAD)Angola - National Olympic Committee of AngolaArgentina - Comisión Antidopaje Interina - Comité Olímpico ArgentinoArmenia - National Anti-Doping Organization of ArmeniaAruba - National Olympic Committee of Aruba Australia - Australian Sports Anti-Doping Authority (ASADA) Austria - Nationale Anti-Doping Agentur Austria (NADA) Azerbaijan - Azerbaijan National Anti-doping Agency (ANADA) Bahamas - Bahamas Olympic Committee Bahrain - Bahrain Olympic Committee Bangladesh - Bangladesh Olympic Association Barbados - National Anti-Doping Commission of Barbados Belarus - Belarus National Anti-Doping Agency (BNADA) Belgium - (Flanders) NADO Flanders Belgium - (French Community) French Community of Belgium NADOBelgium - National Anti-Doping Organization of the Common Community Commission (COCOM) (Brussels) NADOBelgium (German Community) - Ministerium der Deutschsprachigen Gemeinschaft Belgiens NADO-DGBelize - National Anti-Doping Organization of BelizeBenin - Organization béninoise antidopageBermuda - Bermuda Council for Drug Free Sports (BCDS)Bhutan - Bhutan Olympic CommitteeBolivia - National Olympic Committee of BoliviaBosnia & Herzegovina - Agency for Anti-doping Control of Bosnia and Herzegovina (ADABH)Botswana - Botswana National Olympic Committee Brazil - Autoridade Brasileira de Controle de Dopagem (ABCD)British Virgin Islands - British Virgin Islands Olympic CommitteeBrunei Darussalam - Brunei Darussalam Anti-Doping Committee Bulgaria - National Anti-Doping Commission Republic of BulgariaBurkina Faso - Comité national de lutte contre le dopage ONAD-CNLDBurundi - ONAD du Burundi Cambodia - Anti-Doping Agency (CADA) Cameroons - Organisation Camerounaise de Lutte contre le Dopage en Sport (OCALUDS) Canada - Canadian Centre for Ethics in Sports (CCES) Cape Verde - National Olympic Committee of Cape Verde Cayman Islands - Cayman Islands Olympic Committee Central Africa - Comité National Olympique et Sportif CentrafricainChad - Commission nationale de lutte contre le dopage dans le sport (CNLDS)Chile - Comisión Nacional de Control de Dopaje de Chile China - China Anti-Doping Agency (CHINADA)Chinese Taipei - Anti-Doping Commission, Chinese Taipei Olympic CommitteeColombia - COLDEPORTESComoros - Comité Olympique et Sportif des îles ComoresCongo, Dem. Rep - Comité national antidopage congolaisCook Islands - Cook Islands Sports and National Olympic CommitteeCosta Rica - Comisión Nacional Antidopaje en el DeporteCôte d'Ivoire - Comité National Olympique de Côte d'IvoireCroatia - Croatia Institute of Public HealthCuba - National Anti-Doping Body for the republic of CubaCyprus - Cyprus Anti-doping Authority (CyADA )Czech Republic - Czech Anti-Doping Committee (CADC)Denmark - Anti Doping Denmark (ADD)Djibouti - Comité National Olympique Djiboutien Dominica - National Anti-Doping Organization, Inc.Dominican Republic - Dominican Republic NADOEcuador - Organización Nacional Antidopaje de Ecuador (ONADE)Egypt - Egyptian NADOEquatorial Guinea - National Olympic Committee of Equatorial GuineaEritea - Eritea NADOEstonia - Estonian Anti-Doping Agency (EADA) Ethiopia - Ethiopia NADOFiji Islands - Drug Free Sport Fiji (DFSF)Finland - Finnish Antidoping Agency (FINADA)France - Agence Francaise de Lutte contre le Dopage (AFLD-NADO)French Polynesia - Cellule Antidopage Polynesie FrancaiseGabon - Comité National de Lutte et de Prévention du Dopage GabonaisGambia - Gambia National Olympic CommitteeGeorgia - Georgian Anti-Doping AgencyGermany - Nationale Anti Doping Agentur (NADA)Ghana - Ghana Olympic CommitteeGuine Bissau - National Olympic Committee of Guinea BissauGuinea - National Fight against Doping CommitteeGreat Britain - UKADGreece - Hellenic National Council for Combating Doping (ESKAN) Grenada - Grenada Anti-Doping Organization Guam - Guam National Olympic CommitteeGuatemala - Agencia Nacional Antidoping Agency Guyana - Guyana Olympic AssociationHaiti - Comité Olympique HaïtienHonduras - National Olympic Committee of HondurasHong Kong - Hong Kong Anti-Doping Committee Hungary - Magyar Antidopping Csoport (HUNADO)Iceland - National Olympic and Sports Association of Iceland (ISINOC)India - India National Anti-Doping Agency (INADA)Indonesia - Indonesia Anti-Doping Agency (LADI) Iran - Iran National Anti Doping Organization Iraq - National Olympic Committee of IraqIreland - Irish Sports Council (ISC)Israel - Anti-Doping Committee of Israel (ISR-NADO)Italy - Comitato Olimpico Nazionale Italiano (CONI)Jamaica - Jamaica Anti-Doping Commission (JADCO)Japan - Japan Anti-Doping Agency (JADA) Jordan - Jordan Anti-doping Organization (JADO)Kazakhstan - The Kazakhstan Anti-Doping OrganizationKenya - Anti-Doping Agency of Kenya (KNOC)Kiribati - Kiribati National Olympic CommitteeKorea - Korea Anti-Doping Agency (KADA)Korea DPR - Korea Anti-Doping Agency (DPR)Kuwait - Kuwait Anti-Doping CommitteeKyrgyzstan - National Olympic Committee of the Republic of KGZ
Latvia - Anti-Doping department of Sport medicine State AgencyLebanon - Lebanese Olympic CommitteeLesotho - Lesotho National Olympic CommitteeLiberia - Liberia National Olympic CommitteeLithuania - Anti-Doping Agency of LithuaniaStat of Libya - Libyan National Anti-Doping Committee (NADC)Lithuania - Lithuanian Anti-Doping Agency Luxembourg - Agence Luxembourgeoise antidopage (ALAD)Macedonia - National Anti-Doping Commission Madagascar - Comité Olympique MalgacheMalawi - Malawi Anti-Doping OrganizationMalaysia - Anti-Doping Agency of Malaysia (ADAMAS) Maldives - Maldives National Anti-Doping Association (MANADA)Mali - Commission Nationale de Lutte contre le Dopage Malta - Malta Sport Council Marshall Islands - National Olympic Committee Mauritania - Comité Olympique Mauritanien Mauritius - Anti-Doping Unit, Ministry of Youth and Sports, Mauritius Mexico - Comité Nacional Antidopaje de MexicoMicronesia - Federated States of Micronesia National Olympic CommitteeMoldova - National Antidoping Agency of Republic of Moldova Monaco - Comité Monégasque AntidopageMongolia - Mongolian National Anti Doping OrganizationMontenegro - Montenegro Antidoping Commission Morocco - Comité National Olympique MarocainMozambique - National Olympic Committee of MozambiqueMyanmar - Myanmar Anti-Doping Organization (MADO)Namibia - Namibia National Olympic Committee Nauru - Nauru Olympic CommitteeNepal - Nepal Olympic CommitteeNetherlands - Anti-Doping Authority NetherlandsNew Caledonia - Anti-Doping Organization New CaledoniaNew Zealand - Dug Free Sport New Zealand (DFSNZ)Nicaragua - Instituto Nicaragüense de Deportes (I.N.D.)Niger - Comité olympique et sportif national du NigerNigeria - Nigerian National Anti-Doping Committee Norway - Anti-Doping Norway (AND) Oman - Oman Anti Doping Committee (OADC) Pakistan - Anti-doping Organization of Pakistan (ADOP) Palau - Palau Anti-Doping Organization (PNOC) Palestine - Palestinian Olympic Committee Panama - Instituto Panameño de Deportes Papua New Guinea - Papua New Guinea Sports Anti-Doping Organization Paraguay - National Anti-Doping Agency of Paraguay (NOC) Peru -Commission Anti-Doping Peu NOC Philippine - Philippines Sports Commission (PSC) Poland - Polish Commission against Doping in Sport Portugal - Autoridade Antidopagem de Portugal (ADoP)Puerto Rico - Puerto Rico Anti-doping OrganizationQatar - Qatar National Anti-Doping CommissionRomania - National Anti-Doping Agency of RomaniaRussia - National Anti-Doping Organization (RUSADA)Rwanda - Comité National Olympique et Sportif du RwandaSamoa - Samoa Association of Sport and National Olympic Committee Inc.Saint Kitts & Nevis - St Kitts & Nevis Olympic AssociationSaint Lucia - St Lucia Olympic CommitteeSaint Vincent and the Grenadines - Saint Vincent and the Grenadines National Olympic CommitteeSamoa - Samoa Association of Sport and National Olympic Committee Inc. (SASNOC)San Marino - NADO San MarinoSao Tome and Principe - National Olympic Committee of Sao Tome and PrincipeSaudi Arabia - Saudi Arabian Anti-Doping Committee (SAADC)Senegal - Organisation nationale antidopage du SénégalSerbia - Anti-Doping Agency of Serbia (ADAS)Seychelles - Seychelles Anti-Doping Commission (SADC)Sierra Leone - National Olympic Committee of Sierra LeoneSingapore - Anti-Doping SingaporeSlovakia - Slovak Anti-Doping AgencySlovenia - National Antidoping CommissionSolomon Islands - National Olympic Committee of Solomon IslandsSomalia - Somali Olympic CommitteeSouth Africa - South African Institute for Drug-free Sport (SAIDS)Spain - Comisión de Control y Seguimiento para la Salud y el DopajeSri Lanka - National Anti-Doping Organisation - Sri LankaSudan - Sudanese Anti-Doping AgencySuriname - Suriname Anti-Doping Autoriteit (SADA)Sweden - Swedish Sports Confederation (RF)Switzerland - Antidoping SwitzerlandSyria - Syrian Olympic CommitteeTajikistan - National Olympic Committee of the Republic of TajikistanTanzania - Tanzania Olympic CommitteeThailand - Sports Authority of Thailand (SAT)Timor Leste - National Olympic Committee of Timor LesteTogo - Comité National Olympique TogolaisTonga - Tonga Sports Association and National Olympic Committee Trinidad & Tobago - Trinidad and Tobago Olympic CommitteeTunisia - Agence Nationale Antidopage Tunisie Turkmenistan - National Anti-Doping Agency of Turkmenistan (NADAT)Turkey - Turkish Anti-Doping CommissionTurkmenistan - National Olympic Committee of Turkmenistan (NOCTKM)Tuvalu - Tuvalu Association of Sports and National Olympic CommitteeUganda - Uganda Olympic Committee Ukraine - National Anti-Doping Center of UkraineUnited Arab Emirates - United Arab Emirates Anti Doping Committee (UAE NADO)Uruguay - Direccion Nacional de Deporte – Ministerio de Turismo y DeporteUnited States of America - US Anti-Doping Agency (USADA)Uzbekistan - National Antidoping Agency of Uzbekistan ( UzNADA)Vanuatu - Vanuatu National Olympic Committee (VASANOC)Venezuela - Comision antidopaje de la Republica Bolivariana de VenezuelaVietnam - Vietnam Anti-Doping & Sports Medicine AgencyVirgin Islands (U.S.) - Virgin Islands National Olympic CommitteeYemen - Yemen Olympic CommitteeZambia - National Olympic Committee of ZambiaZimbabwe - Zimbabwe Olympic Committee *National Anti-Doping Organizations Index L-Z
ResourcesIndependent Labs Administering Drug Testing: WADA list of accredited labs around the world:https://www.wada-ama.org/en/what-we-do/science-medical/laboratories/accredited-laboratories#region-americas UCLA Olympic Analytical Lab: http://pathology.ucla.edu/olympic-labIDTM: http://idtm.se/SMRTL: https://www.smrtl.org/ Videos & Movies about Doping: WADA- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sWhudwnE3Fg USADA- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JQiRPnHYN00 Icarus- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qXoRdSTrR-4 Bigger Stronger Faster- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3KzGfuFFSxA The Armstrong Lie- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ukOJ_1b-8lQ Lance Armstrong: Stop at Nothing- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qVs1SUolp6o Pantani : The Accidental Death of a Cyclist - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xfN3uxk-vRsMaria Sharapova: The Point - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IVJOV4xnt4s Len Bias: 30 for 30: Without Bias”- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kE3Bg28Bi3A
Resources Articles about Anti-Doping Scandals:Lance Armstronghttps://www.cnn.com/2013/01/17/us/lance-armstrong-fast-facts/index.html https://www.cnn.com/2013/01/15/health/armstrong-ped-explainer/index.htmlhttps://www.cnn.com/2012/10/10/sport/armstrong-report-highlights/index.htmlBarry Bondshttps://www.nytimes.com/2006/03/23/books/barry-bonds-and-baseballs-steroids-scandal.html http://www.espn.com/mlb/news/story?id=3113127 https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/fancy-stats/wp/2017/01/17/if-barry-bonds-ended-his-career-before-steroid-use-hed-be-a-clear-hall-of-famer/?utm_term=.8b4ce755d978 Mark McGwire https://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/12/sports/baseball/12mcgwire.html https://www.si.com/mlb/strike-zone/2013/08/22/steve-wilstein-mark-mcgwire-1998-steroid-era Marion Jones https://ukad.org.uk/videos/detail/the-marion-jones-story http://www.cnn.com/2008/CRIME/01/11/jones.doping/ Len Bias http://articles.latimes.com/1986-06-25/sports/sp-20106_1_len-bias https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/early-lead/wp/2016/06/19/remembering-len-bias-30-years-after-his-death-he-was-it/?utm_term=.8eed6c85009d Michael Phelps https://www.nytimes.com/2009/02/06/sports/othersports/06phelps.html Ben Johnson https://www.cnn.com/2012/07/23/sport/olympics-2012-ben-johnson-seoul-1988-dirtiest-race/index.html https://ukad.org.uk/videos/detail/the-ben-johnson-story Maria Sharapova https://www.vanityfair.com/news/2016/03/maria-sharapova-drug-scandal-may-be-darker-than-you-think https://www.theguardian.com/sport/2016/jun/10/how-serious-was-tennis-player-maria-sharapova-doping Alex Rodriguez https://www.cnn.com/2014/11/05/us/alex-rodriguez-steroids/index.html https://www.nytimes.com/2014/11/06/sports/baseball/alex-rodriguez-admits-to-doping-in-bosch-case.html https://www.usatoday.com/story/sports/mlb/2017/10/14/alex-rodriguez-says-peds-cost-him-40-million-hall-fame-and-more/764757001/ Russian Team https://www.nytimes.com/2016/07/25/sports/olympics/rio-russia-ban-doping.html https://www.nytimes.com/2016/12/09/sports/russia-doping-mclaren-report.html https://www.nytimes.com/2016/05/13/sports/russia-doping-sochi-olympics-2014.html USADA posts all of their sanctions of athletes on this website: https://www.usada.org/category/sanction/
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