Sport and the anti-doping debate

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Doping and deviance. Common sense and alternative understandings: testing the arguments. Anti-doping policy and disciplinary . society. and . d. oping . in the sport . media. A short history of football. ID: 270410 Download Presentation

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Sport and the anti-doping debate




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Presentations text content in Sport and the anti-doping debate

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Sport and the anti-doping debate

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Doping and devianceCommon sense and alternative understandings: testing the argumentsAnti-doping policy and disciplinary society and doping in the sport media A short history of football

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Doping and Deviance

Sociology connects criminal activity to the social environment

RulesNormsCodes

Violation

What are the

?

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Approaches to Deviance

The Chicago School‘social disorganization’lack of moral codes created by sudden social change

Merton (1957)

‘anomie’

lack of opportunities

deviants are victims

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Approaches to Deviance

Foucault (1977)deviant behaviour defines the norm

Young, (1977), Cohen, (1979)

“deviant to whom?” , “deviant from what?”

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Doping as deviance: is there a problem?

An estimated 42,000 steroid users in the UK44% of professional North American baseball playersOngoing ‘Tour de France’ doping scandals

‘You’d have to be an imbecile or a hypocrite to imagine that a professional cyclist who rides 235 days a year can hold himself together without stimulants.’ Barnes, J. (2000)

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“The World Anti-Doping Agency reported that more than 100 potential Olympians were stopped from competing at the Games because of doping, and the International Olympic Committee announced a number of positive tests during the course of the Games. This is good news for clean athletes around the world”

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Case study: What is our common sense understanding of doping?

“Steroids would have made a gold taste bittersweet - Chambers”The GuardianMonday, October 13 2008“Dwain Chambers missed out on the Beijing Olympics after his lifetime ban was upheld by the BOA in August.”

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Athlete vs. Institution

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Doping as unhealthy

Doping as cheating

Doping as rare

Doping as simple

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Is there an alternative reading?

Doping

as part of elite sporting culture?

Competitive

athletes perceptions

:

It is a common secret. I suppose the majority use. Their performances show that.

” (

Interview No.4)

Of course [my coach knows I’m using]. Who do you think is doing the injections?

” (

Interview No.14)

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Coach involvement

“Of course, we are working together. We are both trying to use them properly in order to achieve the best results and avoid health side effects. I would never use something without his guidance.” (Interview No.1) 

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Doping as a normalised practice

“They (doping tests) are for lying to the people. We are not the real cheaters. Almost everybody is using at a higher level. But trying to present a false image to the society is cheating.” (Interview No.3)

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Drugs and the culture of sport

Sport cannot be separated from society

Coach-athlete relationship

P

ressures to

succeed

The Networked Athlete

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The paradox of doping

Citius, Altius, Fortius

Sporting institution wants records but bans means to get them

Anti-doping policy => punishment of the (athlete) offender

Responsibilities of the institution obscured

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Testing the arguments

Doping is not fair

Is sport fair?

Doping is unnatural

Are sporting bodies natural bodies?

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Anti-Doping Policy

In what way does anti-doping policy illustrate Foucault’s ideas about disciplinary society?

Surveillance

Small, regular punishments

Internalising the gaze

Docile bodies

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WADA Anti-Doping Code

Anti-Doping rules

Prohibited list

Testing

Hearing

Appeal

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World Anti-Doping Agency

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WADA- ADAMS

ADAMS videoAnti-Doping Administration & Management System is a web-based database management systemAthlete has a personalised online profile

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Individualisation of responsibility

Monitoring the athlete

Disciplining the athlete

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Contradictions of anti-doping policy

Two apparent themes:moral argumentprotection of athletes’ health

Safest substance

vs

most difficult to detect

High risks from legitimate substances and techniques

Ignores most “at risk” groups such as bodybuilders

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Doping and the media

What role does the media play in the doping debate?

Agenda building

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Doping is complex but…

Doping policy ignores this complexityand has gained global acceptance as the only realityWhy do we accept this simplistic message?

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Athens 2004

Black shadow over the celebration:

Night of mystery with Kenderis and Thanou - and doping in the background”

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Thebe

“The triumph took away the sadness: Unrepeatable ceremony – Tributes from the international mass media”

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Doping in the sport media

Individualisation

Spectacularisation

Confusion/suspicion

Dramatisation

Lack of evidence/explanation

Lack of clarity – gaps in

knowledge

Silences alternative perspectives

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Doping Policy and the Media

Anti-Doping policy frames a complex phenomenon as simplePunishment oriented

Justifies

excessive surveillance and control of athletes

harsh career-ending penalties

Complexities and contradictions are obscured by repeated simplistic media message

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Is it time for doping to be permitted in sport?

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A short history of football

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1234

Understood sociological approaches to doping and deviance

Explored and tested the arguments surrounding doping in sport

Considered WADA and anti-doping policy in the light of Foucault’s concepts of discipline and surveillance

Reflected on the media’s role in shaping the policy agenda for doping

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