OBTAINING METALS

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METAL CHEMISTRY. N4. CHEMISTRY. N5. CHEMISTRY. After completing this topic you should be able to : . OBTAINING METALS. State ores are naturally occurring compounds of . metals.. State . the less reactive metals, including gold, silver and copper, are found uncombined in the Earth’s crust and the.... ID: 226157 Download Presentation

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OBTAINING METALS




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Presentations text content in OBTAINING METALS

Slide1

OBTAINING METALS

METAL CHEMISTRY

N4

CHEMISTRY

N5

CHEMISTRY

Slide2

After completing this topic you should be able to :

OBTAINING METALS

State ores are naturally occurring compounds of metals.State the less reactive metals, including gold, silver and copper, are found uncombined in the Earth’s crust and the more reactive metals have to be extracted from their ores.Explain why some metals can be obtained from metal oxides by heat alone; some metal oxides need to be heated with other substances, e.g. carbon or carbon monoxide; other metals cannot be obtained by these methods.Describe how iron is produced from iron ore in the Blast Furnace.Give examples of the important uses of alloys, e.g. brass, solder, “stainless” steel.Describe the extraction of metals from compounds as a reduction reaction. N5Describe the reaction taking place at the negative electrode during electrolysis for the extraction of metal as a reduction reaction. N5

METAL CHEMISTRY

N4

CHEMISTRY

N5

CHEMISTRY

Slide3

OBTAINING METALS

NATIVE METALS

The metals we use are obtained from rocks in the Earth’s crust.

Most metals are too reactive to exist in a pure uncombined form in the Earth’s crust. Metals are found as in rocks metal compounds. The usual metal compounds found in rocks are OXIDES, SULPHIDES and CARBONATES.

A few metals are found uncombined, as they are very unreactive. Metals, which are found uncombined are called NATIVE METALS.

The native metals are:

Gold

(Au)

Platinum

(Pt)

Silver

(Ag)

Copper

(Cu)

Slide4

potassium

sodium

lithiumcalciummagnesiumaluminiumzincirontinleadcoppermercurysilvergold

METAL

DATE OF DISCOVERY

METAL ORES

Rocks,

which contain metals or compounds of metals are called

ORES.

As man’s knowledge of chemistry increased more metals were discovered, as ways of extracting metals were found.

CONCLUSION

The least reactive metals were discovered the earliest.

REACTIVITY SERIES OF METALS

180718071817180818081825AncientAncientAncientAncientAncientAncientAncientAncient

Using the N5 Chemistry Data Booklet; complete the REACTIVITY SERIES OF METALS with the Date of Discovery in your notes.

Using the information on metal ores in the following slides; complete the

EXAMPLES OF METAL ORES

table in your notes.

Slide5

EXAMPLES OF METAL ORES

NAME OF ORE

NAME OF METAL COMPOUND IN ORE

METAL IN ORE

Iron pyrites

(Fools Gold)

iron

sulphide

Malachite

c

opper carbonate

Galena

l

ead sulphide

iron

copper

lead

Slide6

EXAMPLES OF METAL ORES

NAME OF ORE

NAME OF METAL COMPOUND IN ORE

METAL IN ORE

a

luminium oxide

i

ron(III) oxide

tin(IV) oxide

aluminium

iron

tin

Haematite

(Blood Stone)

Cassiterite

Bauxite

Slide7

METAL OXIDES

A large number of ores contain metal oxides.

To extract a metal from an ore requires heat. Some metal oxides break down by heat alone.

HEATING SILVER(I) OXIDE AND COPPER(II) OXIDE

COPPER

(II)

OXIDE

copper(II)

oxide

HEAT

SILVER

(I)

OXIDE

silver(I)

oxide

HEAT

RESULTS

Silver(I)

oxide

breaks down on heating

to form

silver and oxygen.

Heating has no effect on

copper(II)

oxide

.

Slide8

+

silver(I)

oxide

silver

oxygen

+

Ag

2

O

Ag

O2

2

4

heat

heat

The

silver(I) ion is changed to a silver atom. To do this each silver(I) ion has to gain 1 electron. This change is reduction.

Breaking down a compound into its elements from which it is made is called a DECOMPOSITION REACTION.

Silver(I) oxide decomposes on heating to form silver and oxygen.

+

(Ag+)2O2-

Ag

O2

2

4

Ag

+

Ag

+

e

-

Ionic equation:

heat

N5

CHEMISTRY

Slide9

METAL OXIDES WITH CARBON

Metals with very low reactivity can be extracted by just heating their compounds. Copper is too reactive to be extracted by HEAT ALONE.

Metals with low to middle reactivity can be extracted by heating their compounds with carbon.

HEATING COPPER(II) OXIDE WITH CARBON

copper(II)

oxide

+

carbon

HEAT

RESULTS

After the reaction

some

orange / brown copper

can be seen in the beaker.

The products of the reaction are COPPER and CARBON DIOXIDE.

cold water

Drop hot test tube into cold water

Slide10

Carbon

helps remove the oxygen from the copper(II) oxide. The oxygen transfers to the carbon forming carbon dioxide.

copper(II)oxide

+

carbon

copper

+

carbon

dioxide

CuO

+

C

Cu

C

O2

+

heat

heat

2

2

Ionic equation:

Cu

2+O2-

+

C

Cu

C

O2

+

2

2

The copper(II) ion is changed to a copper atom. To do this each copper(II) ion has to gain 2 electrons. This change is reduction.

Cu2+

Cu

+

2 e

-

heat

N5

CHEMISTRY

Slide11

EXTRACTING IRON – THE BLAST FURNACE

Iron is extracted from its ore using carbon. The reaction requires a lot of heat. To provide the necessary heat the reaction is carried out in a BLAST FURNACE.

Iron ore, coke (carbon) and limestone enter the furnace from the top of the furnace.

The extraction of the iron happens in

3 stages

.

HOT AIR BLAST

HOT AIR BLAST

STAGE 1:

The coke (carbon) burns to produce carbon dioxide

CO

2.

STAGE 1

C(s)

+ O2(g) CO2(g)

STAGE 2:

The CO2 from stage 1 reacts with more carbon to form carbon monoxide CO.

CO

2(g) + C(s) 2CO(g)

STAGE 2

STAGE 3

STAGE 3:

The CO from stage 2 reacts with iron(III) oxide Fe2O3 in the iron ore removing the oxygen.

Fe

2O3(s) + 3CO(s) 2Fe(l) + 3CO2(g)

Molten iron flows to the bottom of the furnace.

Fe(

l

)

Slide12

iron(III)

oxide

+

carbonmonoxide

iron

+

carbon

dioxide

Fe2O3

+

CO

Fe

C

O2

+

heat

heat

3

2

3

Ionic equation:

(

Fe3+)2(O2-)3

+

CO

Fe

C

O2

+

3

2

heat

3

The iron(II) ion is changed to a iron atom. To do this each iron(III) ion has to gain 3 electrons. This change is reduction.

Fe3+

Fe

+

3

e-

N5

CHEMISTRY

Slide13

OXIDATION AND REDUCTION AGAIN!!

The terms OXIDATION and REDUCTION originates from the extraction of metals industry. These terms were used for centuries before atoms and electrons were discovered.

N5

CHEMISTRY

An

OXIDATION reaction is a reaction where a reactant GAINS OXYGEN ATOMS.

An REDUCTION reaction is a reaction where a reactant LOSES OXYGEN ATOMS.

The extraction of iron from iron(III) oxide in the BLAST FURNACE shows these original definitions of OXIDATION and REDUCTION.

iron(III)

oxide

+

carbonmonoxide

iron

+

carbon

dioxide

Fe2O3

+

CO

Fe

C

O2

+

heat

heat

3

2

3

The iron(III) oxide has LOST OXYGEN ATOMS to produce iron. It has been REDUCED.

The

carbon

monoxide

has

GAINED

an

OXYGEN

ATOM

to produce

carbon

dioxide

. It has been

OXIDISED

.

Slide14

EXTRACTING ALUMINIUM

Aluminium is too reactive to extract by heating with carbon or carbon monoxide.

All reactive metals from aluminium upwards on the reactivity series are extracted using ELECTROLYSIS.

Bauxite

The bauxite ore is purified to produce pure

aluminium oxide

Al2O3. This is called ALUMINA.

Solid ionic compound do not conduct electricity as their ions are not free to move.

Alumina is dissolved in molten cryolite (Na3AlF6), as it has a lower melting point than aluminium oxide, which reduces the energy needed for the extraction.This solution is electrolysed and molten aluminium metal forms at the negative electrode.

Alumina

N5

CHEMISTRY

Slide15

C

arbon positive electrodes.

C

arbon lining as the negative electrode.

S

olution of aluminium oxide in molten cryolite.

M

olten aluminium collects at the bottom.

The

aluminium ion (Al3+) moves to the negative electrode where it gains 3 electrons and changes to an aluminium atom (Al). This change is reduction.

Al3+

Al

+

3

e-

N5

CHEMISTRY

Slide16

ALLOYS

Often the properties of a pure metal makes it unsuitable for the purposes we wish to use it. Iron, for example, rusts easily and is quite brittle.

The properties of metals can be altered, by adding small quantities of other metals, or non-metals, to make a new metal called an ALLOY.

An ALLOY is a metal made by mixing different metals, or metals with non-metals.

Alloys improve the properties of metals by making them harder, stronger and more resistant to corrosion.

ALLOY CAR WHEEL

SOLDER

STAINLESS STEEL

BRONZE

Slide17

Mild steel

Stainless steel

12-carat gold

Duralumin

Bronze

BrassCupro-nickel

iron

carbon

Girders, cars, tools

iron

chromium, nickel

Sinks, taps, cutlery

gold

silver, copper

Jewellery

aluminium

copper, magnesium

Aircraft bodywork

copper

tin

Coins, knives, swords

copper

zinc

Ornaments, bells musical instruments

copper

nickel

“Silver” coins

ALLOY

MAIN METAL

OTHER ELEMENTSPRESENT

USES


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