Air Barrier Technologies PowerPoint Presentation

Air Barrier Technologies PowerPoint Presentation

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Energy Technologies. Windows and Building Envelope Technologies. Diana Hun, PhD. Oak Ridge National Laboratory. August 12, 2015. Air Leakage. 2. Accounts for 10% of energy used in buildings. Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Energy Data Book. ID: 716419

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Presentations text content in Air Barrier Technologies

Slide1

Air Barrier Technologies

Energy Technologies

Windows and Building Envelope Technologies

Diana Hun, PhD

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

August 12, 2015

Slide2

Air Leakage

2

Accounts for 10% of energy used in buildings

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Energy Data Book

Transportation

28 Quads

Industrial

30 Quads

Buildings

40 Quads

Air Leakage

4 Quads

US Primary Energy Consumption

98 Quads

Slide3

3

Air Sealing in Commercial Buildings

~800 TBtu staged energy savings in 2030 from maximum adoption2.5 years staged payback

Air-Sealing Systems (C)

(R) Residential (C) Commercial

Windows and Building Envelope Research and Development: Roadmap for Emerging Technologies (DOE 2014)

Slide4

Air barrier (ASTM E2178, E2357, E779)

Controls airflowDegree of water vapor control variesWater vapor retarder

(ASTM E96)Controls water vapor flowClass I: < 0.1 perm  foil-faced

isocyanurate

Class II: 0.1 < perm

 1

 1” extruded polystyrene

Class III: 1 < perm

 10

 latex paintWater-resistive barrier (aka weather barrier; ASTM E331)

Controls water flow4Definitions

Slide5

Low air permeance

Varies with building code/standardContinuous over the entire building envelopeSeal gaps around penetrations (install before cladding)Seal wall-to-roof joint

Seal wall-to-foundation jointWithstands forces during and after constructionDurable over expected lifetime of building

5

Air Barrier System Requirements

Slide6

PBS-P100: Facilities standards for the Public Buildings Service

Baseline < 2 L/s/m2 @ 75 PaTier 1 < 1.25 L/s/m2

@ 75 PaTier 2 < 0.75 L/s/m2 @ 75 Pa

Tier 3

<

0.5

L/s/m

2 @ 75 PaIECC 2012

optionsMaterial < 0.02 L/s/m2 @ 75 Pa

(ASTM E2178)Assembly

< 0.2 L/s/m2 @ 75 Pa (ASTM E2357)

Envelope < 2 L/s/m2 @ 75 PaArmy Corp of EngineersEnvelope < 1.25 L/s/m2 @ 75 Pa 6Air Permeance RequirementsBlower door test (ASTM E779/E1827)Blower door test (ASTM E779/E1827)Blower door test (ASTM E779/E1827)

Slide7

7

Air Barrier Effects

Emmerich

and

Persily

2014

Number of Buildings

0.7

>13.9

13.9

13.2

12.5

11.811.110.49.79.0

8.37.66.96.35.64.94.23.5

2.82.11.4Envelope Leakage at 75 Pa (L/s/m2) Buildings with air barriers Buildings without air barriers

50

45

4

0

35

3

0

25

2

0

15

1

0

5

0

Slide8

8

Air Barrier Types for Commercial Buildings

Slide9

SimilaritiesCan serve

as air and water barrier, and drainage planeMany manufacturers require installation trainingDifferencesMaterial cost

Installation Procedure, training, workmanship skills, time, costTemperatureLocation: interior or exterior side of wall cavity

Vapor

permeance

Thermal resistance

9

Overall Comparison

Slide10

Most products have high vapor permeance

(5 to 50 perms)Require screws with 2” caps Joints are typically sealed with t

apeShould be rolledPriming may be required on concrete, masonry and fiber faced gypsum

board

10

Mechanically-Fastened Membranes

Fasteners with 2” caps

Slide11

Moderate

vapor permeance (0.1 to 1 perm)Reduce thermal bridging when

on outer side of wall cavityCan replace the exterior sheathing

Requires

screws with 2” caps

Joints are typically sealed with tape

Should be rolled

11

Insulating Sheathings

Foil-faced

polyisocyanurate

boards Extruded polystyrene boards Fasteners with 2” caps

Slide12

Available with low and high vapor permeance

(0.03 to 30 perms)Asphalt-based membranes require substrates to be primed Primer must cure before membrane installationSome non-asphalt-based membranes do not require priming

Low temperature products availableMembrane should be rolled

12

Self-Adhered Membranes

Priming before installation of asphalt-based membrane

Primer-less self-adhered membrane

Slide13

Available with low and high vapor permeance

(0.1 to 30 perms)Relatively fast installation with roller or sprayerMay require personal protective equipment

Low VOC products availableLow temperature products availablePotential concernsOversprayMinimum thickness

13

Fluid-Applied Membranes

Slide14

Closed-cell spray polyurethane foam (SPF)

Moderate vapor permeanceReduces thermal bridging when

on outer side of wall cavityRelatively fast installationInstallers must wear personal protective equipmentAdequate ventilation should be provided during installation

Building should not be occupied during installation

Overspray and non-uniform thickness are potential concerns

14

Spray-Applied Foam

Slide15

15

Latest Technologies

Slide16

16

Reduce Labor and Installation Time

Installed

with gun and putty knife or spreader

Spray applied

Liquid Flashings

Primer-Less Self-Adhered Membranes

Slide17

17

Case Study: Wall Retrofit Solutions

Slide18

Develop suite of wall retrofit solutionsExceed ASHRAE 90.1-2010

Suitable for masonry constructionCommon in northeastPreserve existing façadeInterior retrofit

10 to 15 years payback timeEvaluations based onSimulationsLab tests F

ield tests

18

Objectives

Brick façade

2” Air gap

8” CMU

R11 fiberglass insulation between steel studs

Drywall

Slide19

19

Retrofit Scenarios

Solution criteria

Scenario

Potential

r

etrofit

Cost

effectiveRetain existing wall

1

2” foam

board over existing wallSemi-cost effectiveRemove existing insulation26” open-cell SPF within stud cavity35” closed-cell SPF within stud cavityEnergy efficientRemove existing insulation and studs43.5” cellulose + 2.5” cont. cellulose

52” closed-cell SPF + 1.5” cont. closed-cell SPF63.5” cellulose + 2” cont. closed-cell SFP 73.5” cellulose + 1.5” cont. closed-cell SPF82.5” foam board w/ air barrier92.5” foam board w/o air barrier

Slide20

20

Evaluation Parameters

Relevant parameters per panel of industry experts

Level of

importance

per

panel

of

industry experts DataCost-effectiveness

35%

Cost

analysisMoisture management/durability20%SimulationsThermal performance18%SimulationsAir leakage12%

LiteratureDisruptiveness/Constructability9%Industry assumptionsIndoor air quality6%Simulations

Slide21

21

Selected Retrofit Scenarios

Solution criteria

Scenario

Potential

r

etrofit

Cost

effectiveRetain existing wall

1

2” foam

board over existing wallSemi-cost effectiveRemove existing insulation26” open-cell SPF within stud cavity35” closed-cell SPF within stud cavityEnergy efficientRemove existing insulation and studs43.5” cellulose + 2.5” cont. cellulose

52” closed-cell SPF + 1.5” cont. closed-cell SPF63.5” cellulose + 2” cont. closed-cell SFP 73.5” cellulose + 1.5” cont. closed-cell SPF82.5” foam board w/ air barrier92.5” foam board w/o air barrier

Slide22

ORNL’s Flexible Research PlatformMonitoring

Building envelopeHVAC Calibrated modelRetrofitTwo rooms with each of the solutionsCollect data for 1 year

Improve simulation resultsIssue guidelines in April 2016

22

Field Evaluation

Slide23

23

Thanks for your attention


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