Clinical Psychology

Clinical Psychology Clinical Psychology - Start

2017-07-26 409K 409 0 0


Lesson Two – Evaluation of the Four Ds of diagnosis. Application. Dimension. Definition. Key words. Example. 1. Deviance. 2. Dysfunction. 3. Distress. 4. Danger. Duration. Behaviour which is ‘rare’ within society. If the behaviour is considered deviant from the norm then it could sugg.... ID: 573258 Download Presentation

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Clinical Psychology

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Clinical Psychology

Lesson Two – Evaluation of the Four Ds of diagnosis





DimensionDefinitionKey wordsExample1. Deviance2. Dysfunction3. Distress4. Danger Duration

Behaviour which is ‘rare’ within society. If the behaviour is considered deviant from the norm then it could suggest a clinical disorder is present

If the behaviour is significantly interfering with the person’s life a disorder may be present. All aspects of a patient’s life is discussed to assess the problematic behaviour

When the behaviour is causing upset to the individual. This involves negative feelings.

If the person is putting their own life or other’s people’s lives at risk. Refers to danger to themselves or others.

Length of time the symptoms have been present


Martin is a 21 year-old business major at a large university. Over the past few months his family and friends have noticed increasingly bizarre behaviours. On many occasions they’ve overheard him whispering in an agitated voice, even though there is no one nearby. Lately, he has refused to answer or make calls on his cell phone, claiming that if he does it will activate a deadly chip that was implanted in his brain by evil aliens.He has accused his family on several occasions of conspiring with the aliens to have him killed so they can remove his brain and put it inside one of their own. Martin frequently breaks down in tears when he confronts his family of conspiring with the aliens to have him killed. He doesn’t understand why they want to hurt him.He has stopped attended classes altogether. He is now so far behind in his coursework that he will fail if something doesn’t change very soon.

Should Martin (the patient) be referred for clinical diagnosis?







You are the clinician that referred Martin to have a clinical diagnosis.Explain why you did this.What are the strengths of the 4 ds of diagnosis process?

You are reading about Martin’s case and you decide to argue the previous decision. Are there any limitations to this process?Can you refer to reliability and validity?Issues/Debates?

Group one

Group Two


Davis (2009)








Reliability and validity when it comes to diagnosis

Is the diagnosis reliable?

Reliability of diagnosis:

Will different diagnosticians using the same classification system arrive at the same diagnosis?

What should happen if three different practitioners interview the client and they all use the 4 ds?

Is the diagnosis valid?

Validity of diagnosis:

Does the person diagnosed have real symptoms with a real underlying cause? (

the illness is not socially constructed, the person is not faking


Diagnoses may be consistent but what if they are wrong?

What if the conclusions are wrong?


Evaluative Points

Objectivity vs Subjectivity




Put a ‘+’ or ‘-’ and explain why. N/A if not applicable



Discuss the difficulties of using the 4ds to define abnormality (8 marks)

How do we answer this?


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