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# Dairy Cattle Ration Formulation: Lactating Cattle

1 Dry Matter Intake Importance of Feed IntakenMilk yield and DMI positively correlatednEvery pound of DMI = 2.0 –2.5 lbs. milk Quick and Simple EquationnDMI (kg/day) = (0.0968 x BW0.75) + (0.372

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1 Dairy Cattle Ration Formulation: Lactating Cattle Dry Matter Intake Importance of Feed IntakenMilk yield and DMI positively correlatednEvery pound of DMI = 2.0 –2.5 lbs. milk Quick and Simple EquationnDMI (kg/day) = (0.0968 x BW0.75) + (0.372 x kg FCM)nFCM = (0.4 x kg milk) + (15 x kg fat)n635 kg cow, 36 kg milk, 3.5% fatnFCM = (0.4 x 36) + (15 x 1.26) = 32.8nDMI = (0.0968 x 6350.75) + (0.372 x 32.8)24.7 kg/day or 49.7 lb/day Dry Matter Intake 0102030406014710131619222528313437404346Week of Lactation DMI (lb) DMI and Milk Production 05101520254045500708090100Milk Yield (lb) DMI (lb) 1.51.61.71.81.92.02.32.42.5 2 Stages of Lactation Phase FeedingTail End200 to 3306.Peak Intake80 to 2005.Peak Milk14 to 804.0 to 143.Last 21 days dry2.35 days dry1. Dry Cow Nutrient ConcentrationsClose27 -45 -19 -32 -13 -12 -CP, %0.68 -0.60 -NEL, Mcal/lb 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12Month Phase 4 Phase 1 Phase 6 Phase 3 Phase 5 Phase 2 Dry Matter Intake Body Weight Milk Production Peak DMIPeak MilkTail End Fresh Far Off Close Up Fresh CowsnStep Nutrient IntakenStabilize RumennOptimize Dry Matter IntakenObserve the CownMajority of metabolic disorders Early Lactation -First 100 daysnHigh peak dry matter intake, peak milk yield, healthyEach lb. of peak yield = 250 -300 lb. of lactation yieldnNegative nutrient balance -first ? days of lactationMost difficult time to manage cows 3 Late LactationnTake advantage of foragesnlower costnnutrient requirements not as highnGain weight (body condition) lost during early lactation Milk Components Milk Fat & Protein Relationship1.254.763.664.554.03Brown Swiss3.91Fat vs ProteinProtein vs FatProtein %Fat % Milk Fat Sourcesn50% -Acetate and Butyraten50% -Blood LipidsnBody Fat Low Fat TestEnergy Shortagen150 days PostpartumThin cowsn2.5 to 3.0% Milk FatnMilk protein also lowerRation unbalancedMilk Fat DepressionnAny stage of lactationnGood cow conditionn0.9 to 2.5% Milk FatnMilk protein highernfeed conditions Balancing Rations 4 Rations Delivered to the CownThe ration on papernThe ration in the bunknThe ration consumed by the cownThe ration absorbed in the blood stream RequirementsBody weightnHolsteins/Brown Swiss –1350 to 1450 lbsn/Guernsey –1200 to 1300 lbsnJersey –900 to 1000 lbsnMilk productionndaily metered weights, monthly test weights, daily tank averagesnWeight gain/loss Accurate Feed AnalysisnTest forages when harvestednTest forages monthlyn\$15 –Determine forage DM weeklynGrains –use book valuesnTest by-products by load Ration FormulationnLead factorsnOne group –30% (70 lb avg = 91 lb goal)nTwo groups –20% (80 lbs avg = 96 lb goal)nThree groups –10% (90 lbs avg = 99 lb goal) Ration FormulationnStart with foragesndetermine energy/protein supplement needsnMonitor DMI, CP, NEL, and ADF as you change ingredient amountsnNDF spread about 10 ptsnproducts 15-25 pt spread nMinerals and vitamins –commercial grain mix or mineral pack Production Potential Optimal ProductivityRequirementsAccurate Feed AnalysisPredicted Dry Matter IntakeEnergy/CP Allowable ProductionRation FormulationActual Dry Matter Intake 5 NDF Intake1.2%Second Lactation1.0%First Lactation0.8 –Early Lactation0.8 –Dry CowNDF Intake (% of BW) Suggested Ration Composition0.730.700.670.62595245DMI (lb/d)616467RDP (%CP)393633RUP (%CP)CP (%DM)Milk (lb/d) Suggested Ration Composition252735NDF (%DM)2025ADF (%DM)403835NFC (%DM)20120220992207722055Fat (%DM)Milk lb Note on Nutrient DensitiesnNutrient Densities are usefulnHowever –Most ImportantnMeet the nutrient requirements at a given level of feed intake Feed CostsnTypically 50% of expensesnFeed costs –lactating cowsn\$6.00 –Feed costs -all cowsn\$6.50 – Relationship between Feed Costs and Milk Production 0.001.002.00102030405060708090lbs milk/d \$/cow/d 36 maint \$/cow/d milk \$/cow/d \$/cwt