Module 15 Human Sexuality

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Josef F. . Steufer. /Getty Images. Asexuality. . is . having no sexual attraction to others.. Sex . hormones . are one of the forces that drive sexual . behavior. .. Testosterone: . Most important male sex hormone. ID: 685703 Download Presentation

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Module 15 Human Sexuality

Josef F. . Steufer. /Getty Images. Asexuality. . is . having no sexual attraction to others.. Sex . hormones . are one of the forces that drive sexual . behavior. .. Testosterone: . Most important male sex hormone.

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Module 15 Human Sexuality




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Presentation on theme: "Module 15 Human Sexuality"— Presentation transcript:

Slide1

Module 15

Human Sexuality

Josef F.

Steufer

/Getty Images

Slide2

Asexuality

is having no sexual attraction to others.

Sex

hormones are one of the forces that drive sexual behavior.Testosterone: Most important male sex hormoneIn both males and females, but the additional testosterone in males stimulates growth of the male sex organs during fetal period, and development of the male sex characteristics during pubertyEstrogens: The estrogens sex hormones, such as estradiol, are secreted in greater amounts by females than by males and contribute to female sex characteristics In nonhuman female mammals, estrogen levels peak during ovulation, promoting sexual receptivity

15-1: HOW DO HORMONES INFLUENCE HUMAN SEXUAL MOTIVATION?

Human Sexuality: The Physiology of Sex

Hormones and Sexual Behavior

Slide3

Human Sexuality: The

Physiology of SexHormones and Sexual Behavior

Large hormonal surges or declines tend to occur at two predictable points in life span

Pubertal stage surge triggers development of sex characteristics and sexual interestIn later life, hormone levels fall, with women experiencing menopause and men a more gradual changeA third point sometimes occursFor some, surgery or drugs may cause hormonal shifts

Slide4

Human Sexuality: The

Physiology of SexThe Sexual Response Cycle

15-2

: WHAT IS THE HUMAN SEXUAL RESPONSE CYCLE, AND HOW DO SEXUAL DYSFUNCTIONS AND PARAPHILIAS DIFFER?The sexual response cycle identifies four stages of sexual responding as identified by William Masters and Virginia Johnson (1966):ExcitementPlateauOrgasmResolution

Slide5

Resolution

Orgasm

Plateau

Excitement

The Sexual Response Cycle (Masters and Johnson)

Human Sexuality:

The

Physiology

of

Sex

The Sexual Response Cycle

Slide6

Human Sexuality:

The Physiology of Sex

Sexual Dysfunctions and Paraphilias

Sexual dysfunctionsImpair sexual arousal or functioningOften involve sexual motivation, especially sexual motivation and arousalInclude erectile disorder and premature ejaculation (males)Include female orgasmic disorder and female sexual interest/arousal disorder (females) Sometimes involve paraphilias (sexual desire directed in unusual ways; e.g., pedophilia, exhibitionism)

Slide7

Human

Sexuality: The Physiology of Sex Sexual Dysfunctions and Paraphilias

Sexual dysfunction

Problem that consistently impairs sexual arousal or functioningErectile disorderInability to develop or maintain an erection due to insufficient bloodflow to the penisPremature ejaculationSexual climax that occurs before the man or his partner wishes

Slide8

Human

Sexuality: The Physiology of Sex Sexual Dysfunctions and Paraphilias

Female orgasmic disorder

Distress due to infrequently or never experiencing orgasmParaphiliasSexual arousal from fantasies, behaviors, or urges involving nonhuman objects, the suffering of self or others, and/or non-consenting persons

Slide9

Human

Sexuality: The Physiology of Sex Sexual Dysfunctions and Paraphilias

American Psychological Association (2013)

Only classifies people as disordered who experience sexual desire in unusual ways if:Person experiences distress from unusual sexual interest orIt entails harm or risk of harm to othersParaphilias include necrophilia, exhibitionism, and pedophilia

Slide10

Human Sexuality: The

Physiology of SexSexually Transmitted Infections

15-3

: HOW CAN SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS BE PREVENTED?Sexually transmitted infection (STI)Also called sexually transmitted disease (STD)Every day, more than 1 million people worldwide acquire an STIAIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome)Is life-threatening, sexually transmitted infectionCaused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)Depletes immune system and leaves person vulnerable to infections

Slide11

Human

Sexuality: The Physiology of Sex Sexually Transmitted Infections

CDC

report: 14- to 19-year-old U.S. females found 39.5 percent had STIs.Condom use effectiveness varies by infection (80 percent effectiveness against transmission of HIV when used with infected partner; less effective with skin-to-skin STIs such as herpes).Significant link between oral sex and STIs, such as HPV; most HPV infections can now be prevented with a vaccination administered before sexual contact. Worldwide, women’s AIDs rates are increasing fastest, partly because the virus is passed from man to woman much more often than woman to man.

Slide12

15-4

:

HOW DO EXTERNAL AND IMAGINED STIMULI CONTRIBUTE TO SEXUAL AROUSAL?

Levels of Analysis for Sexual MotivationHuman Sexuality: The Psychology of Sex

Slide13

Human Sexuality: The

Psychology of SexExternal Stimuli

Our

sophisticated brain allows us to experience sexual arousal both from what is real and from what is imaginedExternal stimuliPeople may find sexual arousal from erotic materials either pleasing or disturbing; repeated exposure often habituates emotional responseMen tend to be more aroused when erotic material aligns with personal sexual interestPornography may increase rape acceptance, and decrease evaluation of and sexual satisfaction with own partner

Slide14

Human Sexuality: The

Psychology of SexImagined Stimuli

Imagined stimuli

Sexual desire and arousal can be imagined; our brain has been said to be our most significant sex organPeople with spinal-cord injury reported feeling sexual desire95 percent of people report having sexual fantasiesMale fantasies tend to be more frequent, more physical, and less romantic than those of women

Slide15

Human Sexuality: The

Psychology of SexTeen Pregnancy

15-5

: WHAT FACTORS INFLUENCE TEENAGERS’ SEXUAL BEHAVIORS AND USE OF CONTRACEPTIVES?Compared with European teens, American teens have higher rates of STIs and teen pregnancyEnvironmental factors that influence a higher teen pregnancy rate: Minimal communication about birth controlGuilt related to sexual activityAlcohol useMass media norms of unprotected promiscuity; media help write the social scripts that affect our perceptions and actions

Slide16

Human Sexuality: The Psychology of Sex

Teen Pregnancy

Later sex may pay emotional dividends, with those who had later first sex reporting greater relationship satisfaction

Factors that predict sexual restraint:High intelligenceReligious engagementFather presenceParticipation in service learning programs

Slide17

Human Sexuality

Sexual Orientation

15-6

: WHAT HAS RESEARCH TAUGHT US ABOUT SEXUAL ORIENTATION?Sexual orientation is our enduring sexual attraction towardmembers of one’s own sex (homosexual orientation)the other sex (heterosexual orientation)or both sexes (bisexual orientation)In all cultures, heterosexuality has prevailed but homosexuality has existed. Where same-sex relationships are illegal, the prevalence of people who are lesbian, gay, or bisexual is no different.

Slide18

Human Sexuality

Sexual Orientation: The Numbers

Survey results vary by survey methods and population; less open response in less tolerant places

Exclusively homosexual: 3 to 4 percent in men and 2 percent in womenActively bisexual: Reported by fewer than 1 percent—for example, 12 out of 7076 people in a Dutch survey5 percent of men and 13 percent of women in U.S. report some same-sex sexual contact during their livesAPA (2009) reports efforts to change sexual orientation are unlikely to be successful and involve some risk of harmWomen’s sexual orientation tends to be less strongly felt and potentially more fluid; sexual activity level also varies more

Slide19

Human Sexuality: Sexual

OrientationOrigins of Sexual Orientation

Homosexuality

is not linked with problems in parent-child relationships, does not involve a fear or hatred of the other sex, and isn’t significantly linked to childhood sexual victimization There is a lack of evidence for environmental causes of homosexualityInstead, homosexuality seems to have biological influences, as investigated in studies of same-sex behavior in other species, gay-straight brain differences, genetic influences, and prenatal influences

Slide20

Human Sexuality: Sexual

OrientationOrigins of Sexual Orientation

Same-sex

attraction in other speciesSame-sex behavior has been observed in several hundred species (swans, penguins, grizzlies, gorillas, monkeys, flamingos, and owls).Gay-straight brain differencesGay-straight brain differences where one hypothalamic cell cluster is smaller in women and gay men than in straight menAnterior commissure is larger in gay men than in straight men.Gay men’s hypothalamus reacts as do straight women’s to the smell of sex-related hormones.

Slide21

Human Sexuality: Sexual

OrientationOrigins of Sexual Orientation

Genetic influences

Shared sexual orientation is higher among identical twins than among fraternal twins.Sexual attraction in fruit flies can be genetically manipulated.Male homosexuality often appears to be transmitted from the mother’s side of the family.

Slide22

Human Sexuality: Sexual

OrientationOrigins of Sexual Orientation

Prenatal

InfluencesAltered prenatal hormone exposure may lead to homosexuality in humans and other animals.Men with several older biological brothers are more likely to be gay, possibly due to a maternal immune-system reaction.The consistency of the brain, genetic, and prenatal findings clearly leads to a biological explanation of sexual orientation.

Slide23

The fraternal birth-order effect

Human Sexuality:

Sexual

OrientationOrigins of Sexual Orientation

Slide24

spatial abilities

fingerprint ridge counts

auditory system development

handedness

occupational preferences

relative finger lengths

gender nonconformity

age of onset of puberty in males

birth size and weight

sleep length

physical aggression

walking style

Research indicates that homosexuals and heterosexuals differ in the following traits

Human Sexuality:

Sexual

Orientation

Origins of

Sexual Orientation Gay-Straight Trait Differences

Slide25

Why might natural selection have resulted in greater male promiscuity?

Cross-culturally, men think more than women about sex, and men are more likely to think that casual sex is acceptable.

15-7:

HOW MIGHT AN EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGIST EXPLAIN MALE-FEMALE DIFFERENCES IN SEXUALITY AND MATING PREFERENCES?

An Evolutionary Explanation of Human Sexuality

: Male-Female

Differences

in Sexuality

Slide26

Compared

with lesbians, gay men (like straight men) report more interest in uncommitted sex, more responsiveness to visual sexual stimuli, and more concern with their partner’s physical attractiveness.

Gay male couples report having sex more often than do lesbian

couples.

Men who had the trait of promiscuity were more likely to have their genes continue, and even spread, in the next generation

.

There

is little cost to

spreading

their

genes

.

For women, a trait of promiscuity would not greatly increase the number of babies, and it would have greater survival costs. Pregnancy was often life-threatening.

An Evolutionary Explanation of Human Sexuality

: Male-Female

Differences in Sexuality

Slide27

Why might natural selection have resulted in mating preferences?

Male

choices optimized the chance of producing offspring.

Female choices

optimized offspring

survival.

Men chose widely; women chose wisely!

Men prefer women with signs of future fertility (narrow waist and fuller figure; age of peak fertility). Women prefer men with loyal behavior and physical/social power and resources.

An Evolutionary Explanation of Human

Sexuality:

Natural Selection and Mating Preferences

Slide28

Human Sexuality

Critiquing the Evolutionary Perspective

15-8

: WHAT ARE THE KEY CRITICISMS OF EVOLUTIONARY EXPLANATIONS OF HUMAN SEXUALITY, AND HOW DO EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGISTS RESPOND?Most psychologists agree that natural selection prepares humans for survival and reproduction. But critics of evolutionary psychology research note these limitations:Evolutionary psychology starts with and effect and works backward to explain what happenedMore immediate explanations better understood through social learning theory (including social scripts) than decisions made by our distant ancestorsSocial consequences of evolutionary explanation are problematic

Some traits and behaviors are difficult to explain by natural selection

Slide29

Human Sexuality

Social Influences on Human Sexuality

15-9

: WHAT ROLE DO SOCIAL FACTORS PLAY IN OUR SEXUALITY, AND HOW DO NATURE, NURTURE, AND OUR OWN CHOICES INFLUENCE GENDER ROLES AND SEXUALITY?Human sexuality research does not aim to define personal meaning of sex, but one significance of such intimacy is its expression of our profoundly social nature.For both men and women, but especially for women, orgasm occurs more often when sex happens in a committed relationship rather than a sexual hookup.Sex is a socially significant act. Achieving orgasm alone is less satisfying, and with much less of a surge in the prolactin hormone associated with sexual satisfaction and satiety, than after sex with a loved one.Thanks to overlapping brain reward areas, sexual desire and love feed each other.

Slide30

Reflections on the Nature and Nurture of Sex, Gender, and Sexuality

Our ancestral history helped form us as a species; where there is variation, natural selection, and heredity, there will be evolution. But our culture and experiences also form us.

Human

nature is formed by:Our genesOur culture and experiencesIn many modern cultures, gender roles are merging. There have been swift changes in gender roles and sexual attitudes since 1960; biology does not fix gender roles.We can’t excuse our failings by blaming them solely on bad genes or bad influences. In reality, we are both the creatures and creators of our worlds.