Presentations text content in Bias and Error
Bias and Error
What can go wrong?Slide2
Samples that do not represent every individual in the population fairly is said to be biased.Bias is the one thing above all to avoid when sampling.We need to be sure that the statistics we compute from the sample are representative of our population.
In a voluntary response sample, a large group of individuals is invited to respond, and all who respond are counted.Voluntary response samples are often biased toward those with strong opinions or those whoa re strongly motivated.The sample, not being representative, results in an invalid survey from a voluntary response bias.
When some portion of the population is not sampled at all or has a smaller representation in the sample than it has in the population is undercoverage.
No survey succeeds in getting responses from everyone.When those who don’t respond differ from those who do respond, a nonresponse bias arises.The differences are just with the variables we care about.Nonresponse bias can arise when sampled individuals will not or cannot respond.
Sometimes an answer can be swayed by the wording or the way the survey was asked.Response bias refers to anything in the survey design that influences the responses.Response bias arises when respondents answers might be affected by external influences, such as question wording or interviewer behavior.
We must look for biases in any survey we find and be sure to report our methods whenever we perform a survey so that others can evaluate the fairness and accuracy of our results.