Phylum PowerPoint Presentation, PPT - DocSlides

Phylum PowerPoint Presentation, PPT - DocSlides

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Echinodermata. (Echinoderms). General characteristics. Invertebrates. Marine environments. not . cephalized. , no head. Deuterostromes. (. blastopore. forms an anus). Coelmates. embryos have radial cleavage. ID: 213930

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Presentations text content in Phylum

Slide1

Phylum Echinodermata

(Echinoderms)

Slide2

General characteristics

Invertebrates

Marine environments

not

cephalized

, no head

Deuterostromes

(

blastopore

forms an anus)

Coelmates

embryos have radial cleavage

Slide3

4 major unique characteristics

1-

radial symmetry

Often

pentaradial

symmetry, body parts extend from the center along five spokes

2- endoskeleton made of

ossicles

- calcium carbonate plates

may be attached to spine

Or

spicules

that protrude through skin, forms echinoderm- “spiny skin”

3-

water-vascular system

Network of water-filled canals

4-

Tube feet

Small, movable extensions of the water vascular system

Used for movement, feeding, respiration, and excretion

Slide4

Evolution

Fossil record dates back to more than 500 million years (the Cambrian period)

Early echinoderms were sessile

Only 80 species still sessile

Now some can crawl slowly along ocean bottom

The bilaterally symmetrical larvae resemble it’s ancestors

Most closely related to chordates

Slide5

Class Crinoidea

means “lily-like”Five arms branch to form many more armsMucus covered tube feet filter organisms from the waterCilia then transport the organisms to the mouthSea lilies -Sessile adultsUses a long stalk to attach to rocks or the sea bottomFeather starsCan swim and crawl as adultsMost species are extinct

Feather star – Florometra serratissima

Slide6

Class Ophiuroidea

Means “snake-tail”Long, narrow arms allow them to move quicker than other echinodermsTube feet not used for movementBasket stars have thin, flexible limbs form coils that look like tentaclesParts of brittle stars break off easilyCan regenerate

green brittle star – Ophiarachna incrassata

Basket star –

Gorgonocephalus eucnemis

Slide7

Class Echinoidea

Means “spinelike”Sea urchins and sand dollarsTest- rigid exoskeleton, encloses internal organsSea urchins have an Aristotle's mantle-complex jaw like mechanism, aids in movementSpines can contain poison

Purple Sea Urchin – Heliocidaris erythrogramma

Sand Dollar –

Echinarachnius exentricus

Slide8

Class Holothuroidea

Means “water polyp”Sea cucumbersArmlessLive on sea bottom, use tube feet to burrowOssicles are very small and not connected, which means their body is soft

California sea cucumber - Parastichopus californicus

Slide9

Class Asteroidea

StarfishCarnivorous (mollusks, worms, other slow moving animals)Can slowly pull clam apartuse a cardiac stomach to begin digestion withdraws the stomach finishes digestion

Red-knobbed sea

star-

Protoreaster

linckii

Slide10

Sea Star digestion

Mouth

Cardiac stomach- short esophagus

Pyloric stomach

Digestive glands (in each arm)

secrete enzymes that break down food

Nutrients go to the

coelem

Undigested material expelled through anus

Slide11

Sea Star external structure

The

aboral

surface (top half) is covered in short spines

rough texture

Pedicellariae

- tiny pincers that surround the short stems

keep the body free of foreign objects, ex. Algae or other small animals

Slide12

Sea Star Body Systems

--No circulatory system

No excretory system

No respiratory system

Fluid in the

coelem

distributes nutrients and oxygen

Diffusion through skin gills on tube feet (respiratory gases and waste)

Skin gills- hollow tubes, stretch from

coelem

to exterior

Slide13

Nervous system

No head= no brain

Nerve ring instead (circles the mouth)

Radial nerve runs from the nerve ring along each arm

Together coordinate tube feet movement

Nerve net near body surface controls movement of spines,

pedicallariae

, and skin gills

Eyespot at the end of each arm responds to light

Several tentacles and

tube feet respond

to touch

Touch-sensitive and chemical-sensitive cells are scattered all over the surface of the sea stars body

Slide14

Reproduction and development

Most have separate sexes

Each arm contains a pair of ovaries and testes

External fertilization,

Larvae develops bilaterally symmetrical, called

bipinnaria

Some retain their larvae in their body or among their tentacles

Can regenerate arms, but it takes about a year

Can shed an arm to escape a predator

If an arm is attached to a portion of the central region, a whole new organism can develop

Some species reproduce asexually

By splitting it’s body through the central region

Slide15

Sea StarWater-Vascular System

Water enters through the sieve-like madreporite on the aboral surfacePasses through stone canalThen the ring canalThen the Radial canalsContraction of muscles surrounding ampulla cause the tube feet to expand and contractEnds of tube feet act as suction cupsAllows the sea star to move

Slide16

Works Cited

Charton

, Barbara. "sea star."

The Facts On File Dictionary of Marine Science

, New Edition. New York: Facts On File, Inc., 2007.

Science Online

. Facts On File,

Inc.http

://www.fofweb.com/activelink2.asp?ItemID=WE40&SID=5&iPin= DMSN1384&SingleRecord=True (accessed April 9, 2009).

"Echinoderms: Features."

Animal Anatomy On File, New Edition.

Copyright Diagram Visual Information Ltd., 2003.

Science Online

. Facts On File, Inc. http://www.fofweb.com/activelink2.asp?ItemID=WE40&SID=5&iPin= A0439&SingleRecord=True (accessed April 9, 2009).

Edward J.

Devillez

, "Digestion (invertebrate)", in

AccessScience@McGraw

-Hill, http://www.accessscience.com, DOI 10.1036/1097-8542.194500

David L.

Pawson

, Andrew C. Campbell, David L.

Pawson

, David L.

Pawson

, Raymond C. Moore, J. John

Sepkoski

, Jr., "

Echinodermata

", in

AccessScience@McGraw

-Hill, http://www.accessscience.com, DOI 10.1036/1097-8542.210700


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