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Soil Types and Textures
Soil Types and Textures

Soil Types and Textures - PowerPoint Presentation

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Soil Types and Textures - Description

Definitions Soil Texture The way a soil feels A name given a textural group based on the relative proportions of each size of soil particle Definitions Aggregate Mass or cluster of soil particles such as a clod crumb or granule ID: 540854 Download Presentation

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Presentation on theme: "Soil Types and Textures"— Presentation transcript

Slide1

Soil Types and TexturesSlide2

Definitions

Soil Texture

The way a soil feels

A name given a textural group based on the relative proportions of each size of soil particleSlide3

Definitions

Aggregate

Mass or cluster of soil particles such as a clod, crumb or granule

Soil Structure

The combination or arrangement of soil particles into aggregatesSlide4

Objectives

Define aggregate, soil structure, and soil texture

Identify and describe the three basic soil particles

Identify the major textural classesSlide5

SOIL - Fundamental Concepts

Prepared by

Earl D. Lockridge

National Soil Survey Center

Lincoln, NE

http://soils.usda.gov/education/resources/k_12/tools.htmlSlide6

What is Soil?

Geologic definition

: Loose surface of the earth as distinguished from solid bedrock (support of plant life not required).

Traditional definition

: Material which nourishes and supports growing plants (includes rocks, water, snow, air).Slide7

Air 25%

Mineral Matter 45%

Water 25%

Organic Matter 5%

SOIL

Component definition

: Mixture of mineral matter, organic matter, water, and air.Slide8

SOIL

Soil Taxonomy definition:

Collection of natural bodies of the earth’s surface, in places modified or even made by man or earthy materials, containing living matter and supporting or capable of supporting plants out of doors. (Its upper limit is air or shallow water and its lower limit is the depth to which soil weathering has been effective.)Slide9

Soil Taxonomy

At the highest level, soils can be recognized in one of 12 categories known as orders.

For more information: http://soils.ag.uidaho.edu/soilordersSlide10

SOIL

As a portion of the landscape

: Collection of natural bodies occupying portions of the earth’s surface that support plants and that have properties due to the integrated effect of climate and living matter, acting upon parent material, as conditioned by relief, over periods of time.Slide11

Soil Pedon

– A unit of soil

Smallest

unit than can be called a soil.

A three-dimensional

sample that extends from the soil surface to the deepest roots

Area

covered by a

pedon

varies from 10 - 100 square feet, depending on changes in soil properties. Slide12

Polypedons

– units of soil

Groups

of

pedons

with very similar characteristics that are closely associated in the landscape are called

polypedons

.

Polypedons

that have a common set of characteristics that fall within a particular range are referred to as a soil series

Soil

series are the basic units used

to

map

soils

The

Cooperative

Soil

Survey

(http://soils.missouri.edu/tutorial/page1.asp

)Slide13

Physical Properties of Soil

Soil texture

Soil structure

Soil color

Bulk densitySlide14

Three Fractions of Mineral Matter

Sand

Silt

ClaySlide15

Soil Particles

Sand

Largest of the soil particles

Feel “gritty”

Silt

Medium sized

Feel soft, silky, or “floury”

Clay

Smallest particles

Feel “sticky” Slide16

USDA Texture TriangleSlide17

12 Soil Texture Classes

Sand (S)

Loamy Sand (LS)

Sandy Loam (SL)

Loam (L)

Silt Loam (SIL)

Silt (SI)

Sandy Clay Loam (SCL)

Silty Clay Loam (SICL)

Clay Loam (CL)

Sandy Clay (SC)

Silty Clay (SIC)

Clay (C)

Compositions of each of the 12 texture classes is defined by the USDA Soil TriangleSlide18

Examples of Soil StructureSlide19

Aspects of Soil Structure

The arrangement into aggregates of desirable shape and size

The stability of the aggregate

The configuration of the poresSlide20

Factors that Affect Soil Structure

Kind of clay

Amount of organic matter

Freezing and thawing

Wetting and drying

Action of burrowing organisms

Growth of root systems of plantsSlide21

Effects of Bulk Density

Engineering properties

Water movement

Rooting depth of plantsSlide22

Soil Color

Indicator of different soil types

Indicator of certain physical and chemical characteristics

Due to humus content and chemical nature of the iron compounds present in the soilSlide23

Major Forms of Iron and Effect on Soil Color

Form

Chemical Formula

Color

Ferrous oxide FeO Gray

Ferric oxide

(Hematite) Fe

2

O

3

Red

Hydrated ferric oxide

(Limonite) 2Fe

2

O

3

3H2O YellowSlide24

Soils are maps Soil Series or Soil Map Units:

Soil Series

a group of soils that are similar in texture and profile. This is the finest level of soil classification.

Soil Map Units

are groupings of soils that occur together and it is difficult to draw lines between where the individual series occur. Therefore, a group of series are often grouped for mapping reasons.

Soil maps –

applied to ecological sitesSlide25

Ecological Sites are based on different topographic settings