Artificial Intelligence What is artificial intelligence?
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Artificial Intelligence What is artificial intelligence?

What impact might it have on how we work and live? What opportunities does it present for independent schools? . Understanding Artificial Intelligence. (AI). SAS.com. AI makes it possible for machines to learn from experience, adjust to new inputs, and perform human-like tasks..

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Artificial Intelligence What is artificial intelligence?




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Presentation on theme: "Artificial Intelligence What is artificial intelligence?"— Presentation transcript:

Slide1

Artificial Intelligence

Slide2

What is artificial intelligence?

What impact might it have on how we work and live? What opportunities does it present for independent schools?

Slide3

Understanding Artificial Intelligence

(AI)

SAS.com

AI makes it possible for machines to learn from experience, adjust to new inputs, and perform human-like tasks.

“Using

these technologies [deep learning and natural language processing], computers can be trained to accomplish specific tasks by processing large amounts of data and recognizing patterns in the data.”SAS Institute, “Artificial Intelligence: What It Is and Why It Matters”

RELATED TERMS

Machine learning

, “the cornerstone of modern

[

AI

,]

… helps create software that can modify and improve its performance without the need for humans to explain

to it h

ow to accomplish tasks.”

Deep learning,

a subset of machine learning

,

“uses

neural networks

, an artificial replication of the structure and functionality of the brain.”

Ben Dickson, “What

I

s Machine Learning?” BDtechtalks.org

Slide4

Understanding Artificial Intelligence

(AI)

More data, better algorithms, computing power

,

and storage have led to explosion in uses of AI. “AI is ubiquitous today, used to recommend what you should buy next online, to understand what you say to virtual assistants [like Alexa and Siri], to recognise who and what is in a photo, to spot spam, or detect credit card fraud.” Emerging applications include visual inspections (such as of oil lines), responding to customer service inquiries, helping doctors spot tumors, flagging content online, etc.

Nick Heath, ZDNet, “What Is AI? Everything You Need to Know About Artificial Intelligence” (February 12, 2018) RELATED TERMS

Narrow AI: What you see in computers today, “intelligent systems that have been taught or learned how to carry out specific tasks without being explicitly programmed how to do so”General AI: “The type of adaptable intellect found in humans, a flexible form of intelligence capable of learning

how

to carry out vastly different tasks”

Slide5

Understanding Artificial Intelligence

(AI)

SAS

Institute

, “Artificial Intelligence: What It Is and Why It Matters”

“AI automates repetitive learning and discovery through data … [performing] frequent, high-volume, computerized tasks without fatigue.“AI adds intelligence to existing products …. Automation, conversational platforms, bots and smart machines can be combined with large amounts of data to improve many [home & workplace technologies.]“AI adapts through progressive learning algorithms …

. So, just as the algorithm can teach itself how to play chess, it can teach itself what product to recommend next online. “

AI analyzes more and deeper data

.

The more data you can feed [deep learning models], the more accurate they become.

“AI achieves incredible accuracy

with many AI techniques being used in the medical field

.

AI gets the most out of data.

The answers are in the data; you just have to apply AI to get them out.”

Slide6

The Historical Context

AI “will lead us into the mother of all tech revolutions.”

“The last time anything came close was around 1900, when the automobile, telecommunications, the airplane and mass electrification all came together

.

… [We’ve] put computing devices in the hands of 3 billion individuals and created the largest pool in history of educated people working in economies that encourage innovation

… built a global computing cloud and moved our shopping, friendships, work, entertainment… online. In this hyper-connected global market, waves of automation can get invented and deployed warp speed faster than at any time before.”Kevin Maney, “How Artificial Intelligence and Robots Will Radically Transform the Economy,” Newsweek (Nov. 30, 2016)

Kevin Maney “How Artificial Intelligence and Robots will Radically Transform the Economy,” Newsweek

“The First Machine Age allowed us to overcome limitations of physical power through factories (mass production) and railroads (mass transportation). The

Second Machine Age

brings unprecedented boost to mental power.”

Donna Orem, “Artificial Intelligence: Will

I

t Take Our Jobs or Enrich Our Lives?”

Independent Ideas

blog (Feb

ruary

21, 2018)

Slide7

Threats vs

.

Benefits

AI will certainly change the job landscape; opinions differ on the long-term picture.

“Some technologists have said 90 percent of the population will end up out of work.” Other experts say “the concern is not that robots will take human jobs and render humans unemployable

.… The worry is that the speed of AI’s encroachment on jobs could lead to sustained periods of time with a large fraction of people not working.”Kevin Maney, “How Artificial Intelligence and Robots Will Radically Transform the Economy,” Newsweek (November 30, 2016)

“By 2020, AI will generate 2.3 million jobs, exceeding the 1.8 million that it will remove, research firm Gartner said in a report. The public sector, healthcare

,

and education are expected to benefit the most, while manufacturing and transportation may be hit the hardest.”

Yen Nee Lee, “Robots

‘Are

Here

to

Give Us a Promotion

,

Not Take Away Jobs

, Gartner Says,” CNBC.com (December 17, 2017)

Slide8

Threats vs

.

Benefits

“Low-skilled, entry-level, repetitious jobs [generally held by lower socio-economic sectors] will become automated.”

Tania de Jong, “Artificial Intelligence Will Widen the Gap Between Rich and

Poor,” Huffington Post (July 20, 2017)Widening the income gapImpact on social mobility

“The next wave of automation will dramatically increase inequality within societies, further entrenching the divide between rich and poor. There are a number of reasons for this, …

including the ability of richer individuals to re-train for new jobs; the rising importance of

soft skills

like communication and confidence; and the

reduction in the number of jobs used as

stepping stones

into professional industries

[such as paralegal and bookkeeping positions].

”James Vincent, “Robots and AI Are Going to

Make Social Inequality Even Worse, Says New Report

,” The Verge (July 13, 2017)

Slide9

Threats vs

.

Benefits

AI’s role in increased security threats

“As AI technology continues to become more powerful and plentiful, security attacks will become less expensive and more easily carried out, more precisely targeted and harder to trace.” The threat is in three realms: digital, physical, and political.

Catherine Clifford, “Top A.I. Experts Warn of a ‘Black Mirror’-esque Future With Swarms of Micro-drones and Autonomous Weapons,” CNBC.com (February 21, 2018)

Industry discussion

“For-profit and nonprofit companies and technology giants have come together to form the

Partnership on AI

to ‘formulate best practices on AI technologies, to advance the public’s understanding of AI, and to serve as an open platform for discussion and engagement about AI and its influences on people and society.’”

Donna Orem, “Artificial Intelligence: Will

I

t Take Our Jobs or Enrich Our Lives?”

Independent Ideas

blog (Feb. 21, 2018)

Slide10

Threats vs

.

Benefits

Will AI take our jobs or enrich our lives?

“The most optimistic outlook for AI is that it will collaborate with humans to solve our most pressing problems, such as finding a cure for cancer or easing climate change, instead of eliminating jobs.”

Donna Orem, “Artificial Intelligence: Will It Take Our Jobs or Enrich Our Lives?” Independent Ideas blog (February 21, 2018)Will it transform education?

“In the next five years, AI will likely impact education the way that it has other fields, that is, eliminating routine but time-consuming tasks

. This could range from record-keeping to grading papers, freeing teachers to spend more time on the social and emotional side of their

work and offering more one-on-one coaching for students. Over the longer-term, the promise of AI is truly

personalized learning

.”

Slide11

Opportunities

in the Workplace

Freeing people from mundane tasks:

“AI software can analyze in two seconds the amount of data and text that a research assistant would need two weeks to plow through. That frees up the assistants to do more thoughtful work and speeds up the scientists’ search for cures.”

Contributing knowledge to decision

-making: “AI software in a conference room could listen to the conversation in a business meeting while constantly searching the internet for information that might be relevant, then serve it up when asked.”Creating new job types: For example, a company called Influential builds on AI from IBM’s Watson to match brands with social media “influencers” who get paid to tout products.Matching people with jobs: “AI will power software that gets to know you, your skills and your desires and will constantly monitor job openings and freelance opportunities for you.”

Kevin Maney, “How Artificial Intelligence and Robots Will Radically Transform the Economy, Newsweek (November 30, 2016)

Slide12

Opportunities

in Healthcare

Finding new connections

New applications of AI are being tested with “detecting new associations not yet detected by humans. For instance, UK researchers gave data on 295,000 patients to machine learning algorithms, to allow them to correlate medical history with rates of heart attacks.”

Paul Hsieh, “AI in Medicine: Rise of

the Machines,” Forbes (April 30, 2017)Diagnosis accuracy

In the medical field, “AI techniques from deep learning, image classification and object recognition can now be used to find cancer on MRIs with the same accuracy as highly trained radiologists.”

SAS

Institute

, “Artificial Intelligence: What

I

t

Is

and Why

I

t Matters”

Slide13

Opportunities in Education

“AI can automate basic activities

in education, like grading

…. allowing teachers to focus on in-class activities and student interaction.“Educational software can be adapted to students needs

… a machine-assisted solution to helping students at different levels work together in one classroom.“It can point out places where courses need to improve.“Students could get additional support from AI tutors.“AI-driven programs can give students and educators helpful feedback.“It is altering how we find and interact with information. Google adapts results to users based on location, Amazon makes recommendations based on previous purchases …. [S]tudents in the future may have vastly different experiences doing research and looking up facts than the students of today.” (Continued on next slide)

10 Roles for AI in Education

Slide14

Opportunities in Education

10 Roles for AI in Education

(continued)

7.

“It could change the role of teachers. … AI systems could be programmed to provide expertise, serving as a place for students to … find information or could even potentially take the place of teachers for very basic course materials. … AI will shift the role of the teacher to that of facilitator.

8. “AI can make trial-and-error learning less intimidating.9. “Data powered by AI can change how schools find, teach, and support students. … The college selection process may end up … with a system that recommends the best schools and programs for student interests.10. “AI may change where students learn, who teaches them, and how they acquire basic skills.”

Teachthought.com, “10 Roles for Artificial Intelligence in Education”

Slide15

Opportunities in Education

Deakin University’s AI has current and planned uses for student relations, administration, and coursework.

“Since 2015 students have been able to ask the Watson-based

Deakin Genie

for advice related to a wide spread of topics … freeing up valuable teacher time

.… [In the coming years,] the system is expected to … give individual advice in areas related to admissions, tuition and fees, financial assistance, student housing,” among other areas. Future updates will include discipline-specific walkthroughs, such as help with difficult mathematics problems. Hubert.ai, medium.com, “AI in Education — The Genie of Deakin University” (February 28, 2017)

Slide16

Opportunities in Education

Continual work-related training

“AI will also help people learn how to prosper in the age of AI

.

[Khan Academy Founder Sal] Khan’s vision includes helping masses of people continually learn new skills that will make them more relevant in fast-changing job markets.”

Online platforms with personalized preschool learningSesame Street and IBM created a vocabulary learning app powered by AI. “The app leans on IBM’s Watson supercomputer to observe and learn a child’s current reading level and vocabulary range [and then delivers] experiences tailored for that child, continually adapting the exercises and coursework as the child progresses.” The app was pilot-tested for use in a Georgia public school system.

Rachel King, “Sesame Workshop Trying a New Teaching Tactic W

ith IBM Watson,”

Fortune

(June 6, 2017)

Kevin Maney, “How Artificial Intelligence and Robots Will Radically Transform the Economy,

Newsweek

(November 30, 2016)

Slide17

Opportunities

in

Education

AltSchool personalized learning software in public schools

Two California public school districts plan to implement AltSchool’s personalized-learning platform.

“The software is meant as a hub where students can access assignments, … demonstrate what they’ve learned, turn in their work, and keep track of their progress. Teachers can collaboratively plan lessons and projects for individual students, as well as communicate with children and parents.” OTHER PERSONALIZED LEARNING PLATFORMS:

Summit Learning allows students to take customized paths through an established universe of lessons/projects. Teach to One

relies on algorithms to recommend how each student will learn each day. 

Benjamin Herold, “With New Personalized-Learning Software, AltSchool Moves Into Public Schools

,

EdWeek

Blog (Jan

uary

24, 2018)

Slide18

Strategic

Questions

Competition/Market

In a world where functional skills will become less important,

how does your value proposition emphasize your school’s strengths in social and emotional learning? How are you helping prospective families understand the importance of these skills in today’s fast-changing context?

What are public, private, and for-profit schools in your market doing with personalized learning and with other AI applications?Teaching and Learning What personalized learning technologies could be a positive future step for your school? How are you empowering your teachers to learn about the possibilities of AI and other technologies?What are your community’s desired outcomes for student learning? How are you

preparing students for the new economy?

Slide19

Strategic

Questions

Administration

In your hiring practices,

how are you planning ahead for the different types of skills that may be needed five years from now, given fast-changing workplace technologies?

Are there opportunities to rethink administrative tasks that are routine in nature that new or emerging technologies could perform? For example, in advancement, are there ways that, in the near future, machine learning could detect patterns in giving or conduct prospect research? Perform routine writing? Are there apps available now to assist with routine tasks?How are you preparing to address stress that staff and faculty might feel about the fast-changing nature of work? ExploratoryFrom your vantage point, where could you see AI applications taking independent education?

Slide20

References

SAS

Institute

, “Artificial Intelligence: What

It Is and Why It Matters” Ben Dickson, “What Is Machine Learning?” BDtechtalks.org

Nick Heath, ZDNet, “What Is AI? Everything You Need to Know About Artificial Intelligence”Donna Orem, “Artificial Intelligence: Will It Take Our Jobs or Enrich Our Lives?” Independent Ideas blogKevin Maney, “How Artificial Intelligence and Robots Will Radically Transform the Economy, ” NewsweekYen Nee Lee, “Robots ‘Are Here to Give Us a P

romotion,’ Not Take Away Jobs, Gartner says,” CNBC.com

Tania de

Jong, “Artificial Intelligence Will Wide the Gap Between Rich and

Poor,

Huffington Post

James Vincent, “Robots and AI

A

re

G

oing to

Make Social Inequality Even Worse, Says New Report,” The Verge

Catherine Clifford, “Top A.I.

E

xperts

W

arn of a

‘B

lack Mirror

’-

esque

Future With Swarms of Micro-drones and

Autonomous Weapons

,” CNBC.com

Paul Hsieh, “AI in Medicine: Rise of

t

he Machines,”

Forbes

Teachthought.com, “10 Roles for Artificial Intelligence in Education”

Hubert.ai, medium.com, “AI in

E

ducation — The Genie of Deakin University”

Rachel King, “Sesame Workshop Trying a New Teaching Tactic

W

ith IBM Watson,”

Fortune

Benjamin Herold, “With New Personalized-Learning Software, AltSchool Moves Into Public Schools

,

EdWeek

Blog

Slide21