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Document examination
Document examination

Document examination - Description


Chapter 16 Notes Part 1 The Unabomber In 1978 a package was sent to a professor at Northwestern University It exploded when it was opened by a campus security officer The Unabomber This started a series of bombcontaining packages sent to universities and airlines ID: 512528 Download Presentation

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handwriting document writing comparisons document handwriting comparisons writing examiner unabomber typescript documents questioned analysis samples include style original suspect

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Slide1

Document examination

Chapter 16 Notes Part 1Slide2

The Unabomber

In 1978, a package was sent to a professor at Northwestern University.

It exploded when it was opened by a campus security officer. Slide3

The Unabomber

This started a series of bomb-containing packages sent to universities and airlines.

UN (university) + A (airlines) =

UNAbomberSlide4

The Unabomber

The explosives were usually a pipe within a wooden box, filled with metal objects to create a shrapnel effect on explosion.Slide5

The Unabomber

In 1985, a computer store owner

was

killed after picking up a package outside his business.Slide6

The Unabomber

In 1993 two more of his attacks resulted in fatalities.Slide7

The Unabomber

In 1995, the Unabomber promised to end his spree if his 35,000 word (~150 page) “Manifesto” was published.Slide8

The Unabomber

David Kaczynski realized the writing style and philosophy closely resembled that of his brother, Ted Kaczynski.Slide9

The Unabomber

He was arrested in Montana in 1996.

Inside his cabin were writings similar to the manifesto, three typewriters, and bomb-making materials. Slide10

The Unabomber

Forensic document examiners were able to match the typewritten manifesto to one of the typewriters recovered from the cabin.Slide11

The Document Examiner

A document examiner ordinarily involves examining handwriting and typescript to ascertain the source or authenticity of a questioned document.Slide12

The Document Examiner

An experienced document examiner uses techniques such as microscopy, photography, and chromatography as part of their analyses.Slide13

The Document Examiner

Possible responsibilities of the examiner include:

identifying efforts to alter or obscure the original meaning of a document and trying to recover the original contents of the writing.Slide14

The Document Examiner

Reconstructing writing on charred or burned papers.Slide15

The Document Examiner

Uncovering the meaning of indented writings. Slide16

The Document Examiner

A

questioned document

is any object that contains writing whose source or authenticity is in doubt.Slide17

The Document Examiner

Questioned documents may include but are NOT limited to:

Letters

Checks

Licenses

Contracts

Wills

Passports

Petitions

Lottery Tickets

Writing on walls, doors, etc.Slide18

The Document Examiner

Gathering documents of known authorship or origin is critical to the outcome of a document examination.Slide19

Handwriting Comparisons

As children grow up and continue to learn and practice writing, each individual’s writing takes on habitual shapes and patterns that distinguish it from all others.Slide20

Handwriting Comparisons

The unconscious handwriting of two different individuals can never be identical.Slide21

Handwriting Comparisons

Variations in angularity, slope, speed, pressure, spacing, connections, pen movement, and writing skill all contribute to the distinguishable style of each person.Slide22

Handwriting Comparisons

The arrangement of writing on the page also varies, in factors such as:

Margins

Spacing

Crowding

AlignmentSlide23

Handwriting Comparisons

Differences between two writing samples strongly indicates two writers. Slide24

Handwriting Comparisons

Just like fingerprinting, there is no definitive number of common characteristics required to make an identification or exclusion between two writing samples.

The final decision relies on the expertise of the document examiner.Slide25

Handwriting Comparisons

Challenges faced by document examiners include:

Insufficient amount of known writing sample.Slide26

Handwriting Comparisons

Questioned documents containing only a few words.Slide27

Handwriting Comparisons

Questioned documents written to purposely disguise the author’s handwriting.Slide28

Handwriting ComparisonsSlide29

Handwriting Comparisons

When collecting known samples of writing from a suspect, a few requirements must be met:

The writing should be done with similar implements.Slide30

Handwriting Comparisons

The known writing sample should contain some of the same words and letters as the questioned document.Slide31

Handwriting Comparisons

Adequate number to show the natural variations in the individual’s handwriting.Slide32

Handwriting Comparisons

Adult handwriting changes very slowly, if at all.

Samples collected within 2-3 years may be considered valid for handwriting analysis.Slide33

Typescript Comparisons

The document examiner analyzes machine-created documents as well as handwritten ones.Slide34

Typescript Comparisons

Typescript comparisons include but are NOT limited to:

Computer printed documents

Photocopied pages

Faxes

Typewritten pagesSlide35

Typescript Comparisons

The continued emergence of new technology means the document examiner’s job is constantly evolving.Slide36

Typescript Comparisons

The first analysis done is the style, shape, and size against a collection of past and present typefaces. Slide37

Typescript Comparisons

Defect marks on the glass screens of photocopiers can link a document to a particular photocopier.Slide38

Typescript Comparisons

Visual and microscopic analysis of printed documents can determine the type of printer and ink used.

The analysis can yield specific results such as the make and model of the printer and brand of ink.Slide39

Typescript Comparisons

Variations in horizontal and vertical alignment can link a document to a particular typewriter. Slide40

Review

When comparing sample writing to a suspect document, the age difference should be no more than

Six to twelve months

Twelve to eighteen months

Two to three years

Five to seven yearsSlide41

Review

2. True or False: Because children are taught handwriting skills in school and are taught to copy this style, the use of examining handwriting has limited applicability in solving crimes.Slide42

Review

3. True or False: In the examination of questioned documents, the suspect should be furnished with a pen and paper similar to those that were used to create the original document.

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