CHAPTER 2: ORIGINS OF AMERICAN GOVERNMENT

 CHAPTER 2:  ORIGINS OF AMERICAN GOVERNMENT  CHAPTER 2:  ORIGINS OF AMERICAN GOVERNMENT - Start

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LESSON 1: GOVERNMENT IN COLONIAL AMERICA. WHAT INFLUENCED THE DEVELOPMENT OF OUR GOVERNMENT INSTITUTIONS?. OUR POLITICAL HERITAGE. WHERE DID AMERICANS GET THEIR IDEAS ABOUT GOVERNMENT?. WE STOLE THEM – WE’RE AMERICANS!!. ID: 776043 Download Presentation

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CHAPTER 2: ORIGINS OF AMERICAN GOVERNMENT




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Presentations text content in CHAPTER 2: ORIGINS OF AMERICAN GOVERNMENT

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CHAPTER 2: ORIGINS OF AMERICAN GOVERNMENT

Slide2

LESSON 1: GOVERNMENT IN COLONIAL AMERICA

WHAT INFLUENCED THE DEVELOPMENT OF OUR GOVERNMENT INSTITUTIONS?

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OUR POLITICAL HERITAGE

WHERE DID AMERICANS GET THEIR IDEAS ABOUT GOVERNMENT?WE STOLE THEM – WE’RE AMERICANS!!TWO BASIC PRINCIPLES OF AMERICAN GOVERNMENT:LIMITED GOVERNMENT – CONCEPT THAT A GOVERNMENT’S POWER IS NOT ABSOLUTE.REPRESENTATIVE GOVERNMENT – GOVERNMENT IN WHICH PEOPLE ELECT REPRESENTATIVES TO ENACT LAWS AND REGULATIONIDEA COMES FROM BRITISH PARLIAMENT, OFFICIALS ARE ELECTED, TWO HOUSES LORDS = SENATE, COMMONS=HOUSE OF REPS

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LIMITED GOVERNMENT

MAGNA CARTA (1215) – DOCUMENT WHICH FORCED KING JOHN TO RECOGNIZE THE RIGHTS OF NOBLES, KINGLY POWER HAD LIMITS.

ENGLISH BILL OF RIGHTS

MONARCHS RULE WITH THE CONSENT OF PARLIAMENT

MUST HAVE PARLIAMENT’S CONSENT FOR CERTAIN THINGS

RIGHT TO PETITION, FAIR AND SPEEDY JURY TRIALS

NO CRUEL AND UNUSAL PUNISHMENTS

ETC

INFLUENCES WHAT IN AMERICA?

ENGLISH LAW – SOURCE OF ALL HUMAN LAW WAS DERIVED FROM THE “LAW OF NATURE AND THE LAW OF REVELATION (THE BIBLE).”

Slide5

NEW POLITICAL IDEAS

THE SOCIAL CONTRACT –

PEOPLE NEED GOVERNMENT MAINTAIN ORDER AND GIVE UP THEIR INDIVIDUAL SOVEREIGNTY IN EXCHANGE FOR THE GOVERNMENT PROVIDING PEACE AND PROSPERITY.

NATURAL LAW

RIGHTS PEOPLE HAVE SIMPLY FOR BEING HUMAN

“LIFE, LIBERTY AND PROPERTY”

SOUND FAMILIAR?

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COLONIAL GOVERNMENTS

HAD 3 BRANCHESGOVENOR (APPOINTED BY THE KING)LEGISLATURE (WITH AT LEAST PARTIAL ELECTIONS)COURT SYSTEMLIMITED DEMOCRACYWOMEN, SLAVES, PROPERTY QUALIFICATIONS LARGE NUMBER OF WHITE MEN COULD VOTELITTLE RELIGIOUS FREEDOM

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WRITTEN CONSTITUTION

MAYFLOWER COMPACT – FIRST WRITTEN AGREEMENT FOR SELF – GOVERNMENT

CHARTER – WRITTEN INSTRUMENT FROM THE AUTHORITIES OF A SOCIETY GRANTING RIGHTS AND PRIVILEGES.

AKA CONSTITUTION

BY 1776 REPRESENTATIVE GOVERNMENT WAS WELL ESTABLISHED AND THE DOMINANT BRANCH OF POLITICAL LIFE

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REVIEW QUESTIONS

1. WHAT WAS A COLONIAL CHARTER AND WHAT WAS ITS PURPOSE?

2. HOW DID THE MAGNA CARTER AND THE ENGLISH BILL OF RIGHTS INFLUENCE THE AMERICAN COLONIES?

3. IN WHAT WAY WERE COLONIAL GOVERNMENTS REPRESENTATIVE?

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LESSON 2: UNITING FOR INDEPENDENCE

WHY AND HOW DID THE COLONISTS DECLARE INDEPENDENCE?

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THE COLONIES ON THEIR OWN

13 NORTH AMERICAN COLONIES WERE OWNED BY GREAT BRITAIN.

BUT THEY WERE 3000 MILES AWAY IN AN ERA WITHOUT FAST COMMUNICATION.

BASICALLY THEY WERE ON THEIR OWN TO DEVELOP THEIR OWN GOVERNMENT AND IDENTITY.

KNOWN AS SALUTARY NEGLECT

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BRITAIN TIGHTENS CONTROL

TWO THINGS HAPPEN WHICH CAUSE BRITAIN TO TAKE A MORE ACTIVE ROLE IN GOVERNING THEIR COLONIES.FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR – LEAVES BRITAIN WITH A HUGE DEBT.BRITAIN WILL TAX THE COLONIES TO RAISE REVENUE – MONEY A GOVERNMENT COLLECTSCROWNING OF KING GEORGE III

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BRITISH TAXES CAUSE THE COLONIES TO RESIST BECAUSE THEY THINK THEY’RE INDEPENDENT. AFTER ALL…THEY’VE BEEN GOVERNING THEMSELVES (FOR THE MOST PART) FOR ALMOST 100 YEARS.

THEY WILL FIGHT BACK WHICH CAUSES ENGLAND TO DOUBLE DOWN ON PUNISHMENT.

THIS DRIVES THE COLONIES TOGETHER AND THEY BEGIN TO CONSIDER BREAKING FROM GREAT BRITAIN.

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INDEPENDENCE

THE COLONIES DON’T WANT WAR AT FIRST.

THE FIRST CONTINENTAL CONGRESS AGREES TO AN

EMBARGO – AN AGREEMENT PROHIBITING TRADE AND A BOYCOTT – AGREEMENT NOT TO BUY CERTAIN GOODS

TO TRY AND FORCE BRITAIN BACK TO THE TABLE.

KING GEORGE DECLARES THE COLONIES IN REBELLION AND THE FIRST SHOTS ARE FIRED AT LEXINGTON AND CONCORD.

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AMERICANS WILL MEET AGAIN AND VOTE FOR INDEPENDENCE.

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KEY PARTS OF THE DECLARATION

TO THIS POINT NO GOVERNMENT HAD EVER BEEN FOUNDED ON THE PRINCIPLES OF HUMAN LIBERTY AND CONSENT OF THE GOVERNED.

THOMAS JEFFERSON (AUTHOR OF THE

DoI

) DRAWS ON PREVIOUS IDEAS TO EXPLAIN A NEED FOR FREEDOM.

BROKEN DOWN INTO FOUR PARTS

PREAMBLE

STATEMENT OF PURPOSE AND

HUMAN RIGHTS – RIGHTS THAT ARE BELIEVED TO BELONG JUSTIFIABLY TO EVERY PERSON

“CERTAIN UNALIEANABLE RIGHTS”

SPECIFIC COMPLAINTS OR GRIEVANCES

CONCLUSION

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THE DECLARATION WAS RARELY MENTIONED WHEN DEBATING THE CONSTITUTION BUT OVER TIME IT BECOMES A KEY GUIDE TO UNDERSTANDING THE CONSTITUTION AND THE VALUES CONTAINED WITHIN.

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The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of America,

When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.--That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, --That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shewn, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security.

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REVIEW QUESTIONS

WHAT SPECIFIC DEMANDS WERE OUTLINED IN THE DECLARATION?

HOW DID THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR AND THE CROWNING OF KING GEORGE III CHANGE THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE COLONIES AND GREAT BRITAIN?

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LESSON 3: ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION

BIG PICTURE ON THE ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION.

1

ST

GOVERNMENT STRUCTURE AFTER REVOLUTION

FEAR OF A STRONG CENTRAL GOVERNMENT LED TO THE CREATION OF THE ARTICLES

POWER RESIDED WITH THE STATES

NO PRESIDENT, ONLY ONE HOUSE OF CONGRESS, GOVERNMENT COULD TAX, NO BILL OF RIGHTS

VERY WEAK SET UP

SHAYS REBELLION CHALLENGES THIS STRUCTURE

ARTICLES CAN’T MEET THE CHALLENGE

U.S. CONSTITUTION WILL BE CREATED TO REPLACE THE ARTICLES

Slide23

LESSON 4: FORMING THE CONSTITUTION

VIRGINIA PLAN

: REPRESENATION BASED ON POPULATION.

VA WANTED THIS BECAUSE THEY HAVE THE MOST PEOPLE

NEW JERSEY PLAN

: KEEP ONE HOUSE (UNICAMERAL) WHERE EACH STATE GETS ONE VOTE BUT GIVE CONGRESS TAX POWERS AND A NATIONAL JUDICIARY.

NJ WANTED THIS BECAUSE THEY ARE A SMALL STATE AND THIS PRESERVES EQUAL POWER.

CONNECICUT COMPROMISE

: WHAT WE HAVE TODAY. BICAMERAL HOUSE, ONE HALF BASED ON POPULATION (3/5 COMPROMISE FOR SLAVES) OTHER HALF GETTING TWO SENATORS REGARDLESS OF POPULATION.

Slide24

FEDERALIST VS ANTI-FEDERALIST

FEDERALIST

- SUPPORTS A STRONG CENTRAL GOVERNMENT.

ANTI-FEDERALIST

– WANTS PROTECTIONS AGAINST A STRONG CENTRAL GOVERNMENT.

FEDERALIST WRITE THE “FEDERALIST PAPERS” TO GAIN SUPPORT FOR THE CONSTITUTION.

ANTI-FEDERALISTS WILL NOT VOTE FOR THE CONSTITUTION WITHOUT A BILL OF RIGHTS.

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ST

10 AMENDMENTS ARE THE BILL OF RIGHTS.


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