Copyright, 2007, 2009 Mitchell R. Hammer, Ph.D.

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Copyright, 2007, 2009 Mitchell R. Hammer, Ph.D.




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Presentations text content in Copyright, 2007, 2009 Mitchell R. Hammer, Ph.D.

Slide1

Copyright, 2007, 2009 Mitchell R. Hammer, Ph.D.

Mitchell R. Hammer, Ph.D.

The Intercultural Development

Inventory® (IDI® Qualifying Seminar

NIGHT ARRIVES BETWEEN EUROPE & AFRICA

Copyright, 1998-2014, Mitchell R. Hammer, Ph.D., IDI, LLC, used with permission

Slide2

When my father and mother applied for a job . . .

They competed with people in the city they lived

When I applied for a job . . .

I competed with people living in the country

I livedWhen my children apply for a job . . .

They compete against the world

Copyright, 1998-

2014,

Mitchell R. Hammer, Ph.D., IDI, LLC, used with permission

Andres

Tapias

, Keynote presentation given at the IDI, LLC annual conference, 2010, St. Paul, MN

Slide3

This Intercultural Development Inventory® (IDI®)

Cross-culturally validated assessment of intercultural competence

50

item questionnaire, “back translated” into 14 languages, available online and in paper versionsIncludes open-ended questions & ability to add six unique questionsCustomized to

Educational and Organizational

applications

Able to produce customized individual, group, sub-group and organization-wide IDI profile reports

All Individual IDI profile reports accompanied by customized, Intercultural Development Plans

IDI

is cross-culturally validated with over 10,000 individuals across a wide range of cultures—both domestic & international diversity

No cultural bias and not “transparent” (i.e., no social desirability)

Demonstrated content, construct and predictive validity in organizations and in educational institutions

Over

60 published articles & book chapters & 66

Ph.D. dissertations

Used by

1,800

qualified IDI administrators in 30 countries

Copyright, 2007-2014 Mitchell R. Hammer, Ph.D.

Slide4

How to Use the IDI to Build Intercultural Competence

Applications

:

Individual:

Development

Leadership coaching

Classroom/team:

Training, classroom learning

Team/group development

Organizational:

Program evaluation

Research

Policy/Strategy revision

Restricted use:

Selection

Baseline/benchmarking/needs analysis

Copyright, 1998-

2014,

Mitchell R. Hammer, Ph.D., IDI, LLC, used with permission

Slide5

Diversity, Inclusion & Intercultural Competence

Assessed by representation

(e.g., how many . . . )

Assessed by outcomes

(e.g., climate, tenure

turnover, conflict)

Assessed by

the IDI

Copyright, 1998-

2014,

Mitchell R. Hammer, Ph.D., IDI, LLC, used with permission

Slide6

Diversity: The Who

Local Global

Domestic International

Regional/Pan-national (e.g., Arab)

National Ethnic/Race

Other

“Group” Diversities

:

Gender, physical abilities, sexual orientation,

profession, age/generational

Copyright, 1998-

2013,

Mitchell R. Hammer, Ph.D., IDI, LLC, used with permission

Slide7

Inclusion

:

The What

Copyright, 1998-2014, Mitchell R. Hammer, Ph.D., IDI, LLC, used with permission

Slide8

Intercultural Competence: The How

The

capability

to shift cultural perspective and adapt—or bridge--behavior to cultural commonality & differenceDeep cultural self-awarenessDeep understanding of the experiences of people from different cultural communities—in perceptions, values, beliefs, behavior and practicesBehavioral shifting across these various cultural differences

Copyright, 1998-

2014,

Mitchell R. Hammer, Ph.D., IDI, LLC, used with permission

Slide9

Intercultural Competence Development Focuses on . . .

Copyright, 1998-

2014,

Mitchell R. Hammer, Ph.D., IDI, LLC, used with permission

Slide10

Two Ways of Thinking about Culture:

Objective vs. Subjective Culture

Food

Customs

Dance

Art & Music

Games & Sport

Objective

Values

Beliefs

Myths

Language

Social

Expectations

Subjective

Roles

Copyright, 1998-

2014,

Mitchell R. Hammer, Ph.D., IDI, LLC, used with permission

Slide11

Intercultural Competence is focused on Subjective Culture

Subjective Culture:

Shared perceptions & behavior of a group of people Behave

Feel Think

Varies by individual

Shared

Learned

Central preferences (norms)

in a community define “what culture is”

Out-of-Awareness & Deeply Ingrained

Copyright, 1998-

2014,

Mitchell R. Hammer, Ph.D., IDI, LLC, used with permission

Slide12

Intercultural Competence is

IMPORTANT

& Central to Team Performance

Distefano’s research compared the performance of homogenous and diverse teams

Reference: Distefano, J.J., Creating Value with Diverse Teams in Global Management, Organisational Dynamics, Vol 29, No. 1, pp 45-63, 2000

Monocultural

Teams

Leaders acknowledge and support cultural differences

Cultural differences become an asset to performance

Multicultural

Teams

Number of Teams

Leaders ignore and suppress cultural differences

Cultural differences become an obstacle to performance

Multicultural

Teams

Performance

Copyright, 1998-

2014,

Mitchell R. Hammer, Ph.D., IDI, LLC, used with permission

Slide13

Unlike Other Approaches . . .

The IDI assesses intercultural competence along the Intercultural Development Continuum

(Adapted from the DMIS model (Bennett, 1986; 1993)

This assessment tool & model is: Holistic—assesses mind/action sets; not individual personality, knowledge, attitude or skill dimensionsDevelopmental—not typological

Interculturally grounded—explains how individuals and/or group experience cultural differences & commonalities

Copyright, 1998-

2014,

Mitchell R. Hammer, Ph.D., IDI, LLC, used with permission

Slide14

Why the IDI is Different from Other Assessments Tools:

Interculturally Competent Practices . . .

Occur

at a level supported by the individual’s underlying developmental

orientationTraining, education & leadership development efforts at

building intercultural competence are more successful

when focused on the individual

s underlying developmental orientation

As

assessed by the IDI

Copyright, 2007-2014 Mitchell R. Hammer, Ph.D.

Slide15

Intercultural Development Continuum

Modified from the Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity (DMIS), M. Bennett, 1986

Monocultural

Mindset

Intercultural

Mindset

Misses Difference

Judges Difference

De-emphasizes Difference

Deeply Comprehends Difference

Bridges across Difference

Cultural

Disengagement

Scale

Sense of disconnection from a primary cultural community

Copyright, 1998-

2014,

Mitchell R. Hammer, Ph.D., IDI, LLC, used with permission

Slide16

Four Most Common Questions about the IDI

Is it biased?

NO: Multi-cultural item generation

Who does it apply to?

Breadth—across wide variety

of cultural groups

Is it predictive of results?

YES: Criterion validity

shown on bottom-line

organization results

Is it accurate?

YES: Construct, content

validity & high reliability

Copyright, 1998-

2014,

Mitchell R. Hammer, Ph.D., IDI, LLC, used with permission

Slide17

The Higher the Staffing Team’s IDI Score—the More Successful in Hiring Diverse Talent

Minimization

Acceptance

Polarization

(Defense /

Reversal)

Greater

Diversity

Hiring

Less

Diversity

Hiring

Copyright, 1998-

2013,

Mitchell R. Hammer, Ph.D., IDI, LLC, used with permission

Slide18

IDI

Predictive Validity in Study

Abroad

Hammer, M.R. (2011). Additional cross-cultural validity testing of the Intercultural Development Inventory. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 35, 474-487.

Copyright, 1998-2013, Mitchell R. Hammer, Ph.D., IDI, LLC, used with permission

Slide19

Instrument Development Criteria

 

IDI Fully Meets Criteria

Testing confirmed the underlying theoretical framework of the IDI—the Intercultural Development Continuum or IDC

(e.g., high inter-rater reliabilities based on in-depth interview analysis & correlational analysis) 

IDI items reflect perspectives of people from a wide range of international and domestic cultural groups

(e.g., through in-depth interviews)

IDI does

not

contain cultural bias

(e.g., initial pool of items generated from statements made by culturally diverse interviewees—not by the researchers)

IDI validity and reliability results confirmed in large, multicultural samples—over 10,000 individuals

(e.g., using rigorous Confirmatory Factor Analysis in item/scale analysis)

 

IDI has strong “content” validity

(e.g., initial item pool generated from actual statements made by interviewee’s from a wide-range of cultural groups & Expert Panel Review used to narrow item pool—with high inter-rater reliabilities)

 

IDI has strong “construct” validity

(IDI Orientations correlated as predicted to

Worldmindedness

(cognitive measure) and Intercultural Anxiety (affective measure)

 

IDI has strong “predictive” validity in organizations

(e.g., IDI predictive of success in diversity recruitment and hiring)

 

IDI has strong “predictive” validity in education

(e.g., IDI predictive of achievement of study abroad outcomes)

 

IDI Developmental Orientation and Perceived Orientation scores are highly reliable

(.82, .83, coefficient alpha & all sub-scales achieved satisfactory reliabilities)

 

Readability analysis of the IDI indicates the IDI is appropriate for individuals 15 years of age or higher)


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