Famous Greek Philosophers
Famous Greek Philosophers

Famous Greek Philosophers - PowerPoint Presentation

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With a partner What is truth What is beauty What is virtue What is patriotism What is philosophy Philosophy Definition Philosophy isThe rational investigation of the truths and principles of being knowledge or conduct ID: 541778 Download Presentation

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Famous Greek PhilosophersSlide2

With a partner….

What is truth?

What is beauty?

What is


What is patriotism?

What is



Definition: Philosophy is…“The rational investigation of the truths and principles of being, knowledge, or conduct.”

Philosophers always assume two things

The universe was made in an orderly way

People could understand these laws (orders) through reasoningSlide4


470-399 B.C.

He left no writings. We know of him only




Famous question: “Do you know what you’re talking about?” reflected how he did not accept people’s teachings at face valueSlide5

Socrates, cont.

He called himself “a gadfly that stings people out of complacency.”

He insisted people give reasonable defense for their beliefs.

He said: virtue IS knowledge. Therefore, no person, knowingly, acts wickedly.Slide6

The Socratic Method

The Socratic Method asks the question “why?”

He learned by questioning.

His challenging arguments attracted many followers (Plato), but it also made enemies.Slide7

Socrates on Trial

He was put on trial in 399 B.C. for corrupting the minds of the Athenian youth.

He was sentenced to death.

His friends

(Crito) urged

him to escape, but he did not


Instead, he drank the poisoned hemlock that the jailer brought to him.Slide8

Socrates on Trial

Socrates made three speeches to the Athenian jury after he received his death sentence. His third speech instructed the jury (and his friends) how he wanted his sons to be raised.

Socrates asks his friends to look after his three sons and to make sure that they always put

goodness above money or other earthly trappingsSlide9

Why didn’t he flee prison!?

It would have been quite easy for Socrates to escape from prison. But he refused.

While Socrates was in jail awaiting his execution, his dear friend Crito comes to him and urges him to escape. They debate over whether it was just to flee jail—willingly breaking the laws of the state.

Socrates argues with Crito and concludes that instead, he should follow his sentence.

Why commit suicide?

He believed knowledge and virtue were worth pursuing whatever the cost, and he believed running away went against everything he stood for.Slide10


437-347 BC

A pupil (student) of Socrates, he was an aristocratic Athenian who was deeply moved by Socrates’ quest for truth.

Unlike Socrates, he left behind over 25 separate works of writing.Slide11

Plato’s contributions

One of Plato’s most influential contributions to philosophy was his dualist idea of man—that man is divided into two natures.

The Physical Flesh (the whole material world): impermanent and evil

The Mind—where man is able to grasp unchanging truth. Plato believed the ultimate in reality (the “really real”) was “forms”—the objects of knowledge and reasoning.

Plato’s goal was to


as much knowledge as possible.Slide12

Plato’s Dualist theory

What do you/I agree with?


riginal sin

(The Physical Flesh)

Truth exists

(The Mind)What do I disagree with?Naphesh

(separate soul)

Strive to know God, not just acquire knowledgeSlide13

Plato’s Republic

One of Plato’s most famous writings was The Republic.Slide14

United States?Slide15


Three classes of people:

Philosophers (rulers/kings)



Inside the Republic, is Plato’s Allegory of a Cave, where the world around us is likened to shadows cast onto the wall of a cave.

As you can see, Plato’s Republic is critical of democracy. Plato did not trust the masses to govern.Slide16


384-322 BC

He entered Plato’s Academy at the age of 18.

For a short

time he tutored

Alexander the



Aristotle was a lover of philosophy, but more importantly he also



mpirical biology (learning

about living things through observation



science (physics and chemistry).While Socrates and Plato focused on the inner self, Aristotle focused on explaining the physical world and human society through observation.He believed every truth followed logically from other truths.Slide18

Every truth follows from a truth..?

He developed syllogism. Which became the backbone of MODERN logic/reason.

If A=B

And B=C

Then A=C


If I am a woman

And all women are intelligentThen, I am intelligent