Altruistic Helping in Human Infants and oung Chimpanzees Felix arneken and Michael omasello Huma being out inely help others to ac hieve their goal s even when the helper eceiv es no imme diate benef
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Altruistic Helping in Human Infants and oung Chimpanzees Felix arneken and Michael omasello Huma being out inely help others to ac hieve their goal s even when the helper eceiv es no imme diate benef

This equi both an unde rstand ing of others goal and an altr uist ic motiv ation to help In addit ion demon str ate simila thou gh less obust skil ls and mot ivat ions in thr ee youn impan zees elping an el er es abou the goal the oth er is atte mpt

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Altruistic Helping in Human Infants and oung Chimpanzees Felix arneken and Michael omasello Huma being out inely help others to ac hieve their goal s even when the helper eceiv es no imme diate benef




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Altruistic Helping in Human Infants and oung Chimpanzees Felix arneken and Michael omasello Huma being out inely help others to ac hieve their goal s, even when the helper eceiv es no imme diate benef it and the per son helpe str anger Suc alt ruist ic behav iors (to war non- kin) ar extr eme ly evol utiona rily with some theori sts even pr opos ing that the uni quely human Her show that huma ildr en as young as 18 mon ths of age (pr eling uist ic or just -lin guist ic) quite eadily help others to ac hieve their goal varie ty of diffe situ ation s. This equi both an unde

rstand ing of others goal and an altr uist ic motiv ation to help. In addit ion demon str ate simila thou gh less obust skil ls and mot ivat ions in thr ee youn impan zees elping an el er es abou the goal the oth er is atte mpt ing to ac cu rr en to th at ti ex er ti ef fo rt to an er so wi th en ef deed, some researche rs have claimed that al wa th at ev en cl ri ma re ow er fu me th ea re ct ly co mp ar in fa nd ri ma re (c an ze es to he lp Su ch so ay en ab le to st co an ce st ch im ze es an ro sp th at er im en ta es ve sy st em ca es te an in fa ch il ar se si tu at io In th cur ren we

pr es ent ed 24 mon th- ol nts wi th 10 di ff er ent si tu at io ns in wh ic adu lt (a ma le exp eri me nt er hav in ub le ach ie vin go al var ie ty of ta sk ese nte ch ild re va ri et di ff ic ult ie dis cer ni ng the ad ul and hi oal ese si t- ua tio ns fel es: ou t- of- re ach ob je ct s, ac ce ss th wa rt ed by ac hi evi ng (c or rec ta bl e) re su lt and us in wr on orr ec ta ble (Ta bl (m ov ie ea ch ta sk ere wa co rre sp on ing co nt rol ta sk in wh ic sam ba sic si tua tio pr ese nt di ca tio pro bl em for the ad ul 14 ). Th is ens red th at th inf ant tiv at io wa ju st to re in st

at ori gi nal si tua tio or to ave th adu lt re pea ac ti on ut rat her to act ually hel the adul with his pr ob le m. Af te occ urr enc the pro ble in ea ch ta sk (e .g. on fl oo r) th er ph as es: Th exp er im en te fo cus ed on th th en al te rn at ed ga ze wee chi ld (11 to s) in add it io rba liz ed le ile co nt in uin ga ze (e .g ., My ma rk er! s). In co nt rol tr ia ls lo ok ed at th ne ut ral fa ci al ex pre ss io 20 s. In no ca se the in fa nt re cei ve any ene fi or pra ise he lpi ng div idu al wa 10 ta sk s, of adm in is te re ex per im ent al and con tr ol co nd iti on sy st em at

ic al ly var ie der ). Th us ta sk 12 ch ild re exp er im en ta con dit io 12 ot he rs in th con tr ol co n- di tio et we en- su bj ect mpa ri so n. whe his hand wer ful (but not if he re th lt ei th er lo th em do ta or ts of po ib in st th ic en pri mates helpin other who are strug glin to achi eve the ir goals (instr umen tal helpin g) Department of Developmental and Comparative Psych olo- gy Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthr opology Deutscher Platz 6, 04103 Leipzig, Germany *T whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: warneken@eva.mpg.de able 1. Examples of proble ms used

in ch ild study Category ask Problem Out-of-reac Marker Th du ac ci ma rk er th lo or an ns ce ss ll ea fo ex me en ti on al fl oo co l) Physical obstacle Cabinet The adult wants to put magazines in to cabinet, but the doors are closed so that he bumps in to it (experimen tal) versus bumping into the doors as he tries to lift the magazines onto the cabinet (contr ol). Wr ong result Book book slips from stack as the adult attempts to place it on top of the stack (experimental) or he places it next to the stack (contr ol). Wr ong means Flap th ll ho le or fl ap on th id he ex me Al te el th on

ox pu os co l) REPORTS 1301 www .sciencemag.or SCIENCE VOL 311 MARCH 2006
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ta l, co nt ro l) ere as fo ll ow s: lex tasks 14 ). Pre sumabl y, when someone is shou ld also be note that the chimp anze es of the curr ent study unli ke those in 21 22 ), th ei ev en wh en th is References and Notes 1. D. Bischof-K hler Infan Development: Perspect ives from German-Speaking Countries Lamb, H. Keller Eds. (Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ, 1991), pp. 245273. 2. D. Bischof-K hler Z. Psychol. Z. Angew Psychol. 202 349 (1994). 3. D. Bischof-K hler Psychol. Erzieh. Unterr 47 142 (2000). 4. J. Dunn,

Munn, Int. J. Behav Dev 265 (1986). 5. g, R. A. Ha of Ch ol ia ot an ty en is en be le 6. J. E. Gruse c, M. David ov Lunde ll, in Blac kwel Handb ook of Chil dhoo Social Devel opmen 7. M. L. Hoffman, Empathy and Moral Development: Implications for Caring and Justice (Cambridge Univ Pr ess, New ork, 2000). 8. C. Zahn-W axler Radke- arrow King, Child Dev 50 319 (1979). 9. C. Zahn-W axler Radke- arrow agner M. Chapman, Dev Psychol. 28 126 (1992). 10. D. B. Johnson, Merrill Palmer Q. 28 379 (1982). 11. Infan ts and young hildren readily participate in typical household chor es such as cleaning up

12 vi at 12. H. L. Rheingold, Child Dev 53 114 (1982). 13. U. Liszkowski, M. Carpenter Striano, M. omasello, J. Cogn. Dev ., in press. 14. See supporting material on Science Online. 15. S. M. OConnell, Primates 36 397 (1995). 16. de aal, Good Natured (Harvard Univ Press, Cambridge, MA, 1996). Fig. 1. Mean percen tage of target behaviors as function of task and condition. In tasks with multiple trials, the mean per centage of trials with target behavior per total number of trials was computed for each individual. Independen t-sample tests (df 22) evealed significant differ ences between

conditions for the tasks Paperball 4.30, 0.001), Marker 2.70, 0.05), Clothespin 4.38, 0.001), Books 2.33, 0.05), and Cabinet 3.08, 0.01). For the Flap task with only one trial per individual, we computed Fishers exact test 24, 0.05). In these six tasks, ch ildren performed the targ et behavior significantly mor often in the experimental than in the contr ol condition. No differ ence between conditions was found for the tasks Clips 1.04, 0.31), Cap, Chair and ool, Fishers exact tests 24), 1.0, 0.48, and 0.22, espectively Error bars repr esent SE; 0.05. REPORTS MARCH 2006 VOL 311 SCIENCE www

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17. B. B. Beck, Science 182 594 (1973). 18. S. Preston, de aal, Behav Brain Sci. 25 (2002). 19. In one study tamarin monkeys sometimes pulled food to within reac conspecifics, but the other was doing nothing special at that time; that is, it was never attempting to solve problem 20 ). 20. M. Hauser Chen, Chen, E. Chuang, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser 270 2363 (2003). 21. K. Jensen, B. Hare, J. Call, M. omasello, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser published online 17 January 2006 (10.1098/rspb.2005.3417). 22. J. Silk et al. Nature 437 1357 (2005). 23. D. L. Wo lfe, H. M.

olfe, J. Genet. Psychol. 55 137 (1939). 24. B. A. Hare, M. omasello, Anim. Behav 68 571 (2004). 25. M. omasello, M. Carpenter Call, Behne, H. Moll, Behav Brain Sci. 28 (2005). 26. R. D. Alexander The Biology of Moral Systems (de Gruyter Hawthorne, NY 1987). 27. E. Fehr Fischbac her Nature 425 785 (2003). 28. J. Stevens, M. Hauser rends Cogn. Sci. (2004). 29. J. Richerson, R. Boyd, Not by Genes Alone (Univ Chicago Press, Chicago, 2005). 30. thank the hildren and their paren ts for their help; E. Rossi for her assistance with the childr en; S. Mauritz, C. Richter and J. Collard as well as the

keepers at the Leipzig for their assistance with the chimpanzees; D. Stahl for statistical advice; and H. Rakoczy and two anonymou reviewers for thoughtful comments on an earlier draft. Supporting Online Material www .sciencemag.org/cgi/con tent/full/311/5765/1301/DC1 Materials and Methods able S1 Movies S1 to S8 17 October 2005; accepted 19 December 2005 10.1126/science.1121448 REPORTS 1303 www .sciencemag.or SCIENCE VOL 311 MARCH 2006