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Digital t




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Slide1

Digital transformation of Public Administration in the UK: lessons from the past and future trajectories

Vishanth WeerakkodyProfessor of Digital Government BRUNEL UNIVERSITY, UKEditor-in-Chief: International Journal of Electronic Government Research

Slide2

Brunel University is a research led university Well-established reputation for international research excellence Three research institutes and three colleges 15,000+ studentsHas secured over 50 European Commission funded R&D contracts over the last 5 yearsCoordinated over 15 European Commission Funded R&D projects In the last three years has secured more than £60 million in European and over £50 million in national R&D funding

Slide3

Innovation in the UK Public Sector Through Dig

ital Government

1997 to 2015:

Past, Present and Future

Slide4

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What is Digital Government ?

It’s NOT about technology

….

It is about electronic service delivery (ESD)

Using new technology to develop better, more accessible

citizen focused

services

Focus on the

community

, not the technology

Slide9

9

What is Digital Government

It is about:

building services around

needs

of the

citizen

improving

service responsiveness

and

quality

Improving

trust

in government

Improving

accessibility

of services

Improving

availability

of services

Improving customer /

citizen satisfaction

Adding

value

to service delivery

Reducing service

errors

change management; continuous improvement; business transformation for the whole government; technology supporting these objectives

Slide10

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The Evolution of Digital Government (UK)

Electronic Government

Transforming Government

Transforming Governance

Electronic Governance?

202x

2015

2007

1997

Slide11

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Using Digital to Transform Government

Cataloguing Information

Transactional Services

Joined-up Govt.

Slide12

Example of some digital government stage models in literatureGartner(2000)Layne and Lee(2001)Hiller and Belanger(2001)UN(2002)Siau and Long(2005)Lashree and Marthandan(2010)PresenceCataloguingInformationEmerging presenceWeb presenceWeb presenceEnhanced presenceInteractionTransactionTow way communicationInteractive presenceInteractionInteractionTransactionTransactionTransactional presenceTransactionTransactionTransformationVertical IntegrationIntegrationSeamless or fully integrated presenceTransformationTransformationHorizontal IntegrationE-democracyE-society

Digital Government Stage Models

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Principles and Boundaries of Digital Government

Sub-categories of Digital Government

5

Types of e-Government

Government-to-Government (G2G)

Government-to-Citizen (G2C)

Government-to-Business (G2B)

Government-to-Employees (G2E)

Government information and services for other Government entities.

Focusing on

: Communication, coordination, standardisation of information and services.

Defined as e-Administration.

Government information and services for citizens.

Focusing on

: Communication,

transparency, accountability, effectiveness, efficiency, standardisation of information and services, productivity.

Defined as e-Government.

Government information and services for different business entities (private & public).

Focusing on

: Communication, collaboration and commerce.

Defined as e-Government, e-Commerce, e-Collaboration.

Government information and services for government employees.

Focusing on

: Communication,

transparency, accountability, effectiveness, efficiency, standardisation of information and services, productivity.

Defined as e-Government.

Source:

Yildis

, M. (2007). E-government research: Reviewing the literature, limitations, and ways forward,

Government Information Quarterly, 24(3), 646-665.

Slide14

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Digital Transformation of Government: 3C’s

Communication

Collaboration

Coordination

Informing the Citizens

Interacting with the Citizen

Engaging the Citizen

Basic Information

Transactional Services

Transformational Services

Towards

joined-up

or

one-stop

government

Slide15

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Big spending on e-Government in the United Kingdom in the

recent past … is it set to continue?UK public sector spending in 2007/2008 (peak period for e-government) reached £586.35 billion with the department of work and pension and department of health receiving £138 billion and £108 billion, respectively.e-Government continued to focus on e-Services (delivery) with spending of £180 per household. Financially tangible savings came from internal re-organisation, online procurement and citizen relationship management.Local authorities were expected to start recouping (saving) investments from e-Government initiatives after 2012; but is it about return on investment or citizen satisfaction?Source: Accenture 2004 e-Government Leadership: High Performance, Maximum Value

Principles and Boundaries of Digital Government

Slide16

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Dissemination Channels for the UK.

Interactive Digital TV

subscription based Cable Satellite - SkyFreeview Online Mobile Phones

Sky customer base reached 9.77million

by March

2010 and over 10.5 million now

77% of UK population had Freeview services since 201029,160,317 visits to all Directgov websites in 2010 (NOW GOV.UK)Mobile phone penetration reached 84% of the UK’s adult population in 2009 and 92% in 2014.

The UK Experience: Multi-Channel Approach to Digital Government

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Academic Research So Far: Classification Digital Government Benefits

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Academic Research So Far: Classification of Implementation Challenges

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Digital Enabled Transformation : Challenges Faced in the UK Public Sector (Empirical Research Lessons from the Past)

Avoid focusing on automating / web-enabling inefficient customer facing manual processesEmphasis on the use of ICT for improved service delivery in local government, but councils were avoiding process management / improvement issuesFragmented approach to new ICT implementation in local government Needed a more holistic change management approach in local government Lack of training further compounded by negative employee attitude Cross-agency business process and information systems integration and communication problems hindering the effective delivery of e-services Inbuilt process deficiencies in government agencies further compounding the integration and data flow issues

Slide20

Theories Used for Studying Implementation

Institutional Theory

Change Theories

Business Process Reengineering

Slide21

What About Digital Government Adoption?

Almost two decades into E-Government and adoption and diffusion remain the biggest problem for governments E-Inclusion (digital inclusion) has been recognised as one of the most important strategic priorities for the present UK government

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E-Inclusion

Digital Divide

Social Cohesion

Social Exclusion

Background: e-inclusion concepts and fundamental

Slide23

17%

23%

20%

GAP 1

GAP 2

GAP 3

Level of e-Inclusion gaps in the UK

Slide24

Conceptualizing e-Inclusion

E-inclusion Dimensions

Slide25

Strategies to Promote e-Inclusion in Europe 1999-

3

YEAR

SOURCE

STRATEGIES

1999

European policy documents

eEurope: the objective of the eEurope initiative is to bring everyone in Europe online

as quickly as possible

2000

The European

Council

meeting

Lisbon

Set the goal of the European Union’s becoming a more competitive and dynamic

knowledge based economy in the world, capable of sustainable economic growth

with more and better jobs and greater social cohesion.

2001

The European Council meeting

Nice

Specific criteria were set out together with a requirement that each Member State produce a biennial national action plan on social inclusion.

2002

eEurope

eEurope sets a number of targets on

e-accessibility

2003

Symposium on e-Inclusion

Ministers

discussed ways to make the Information Society open, inclusive and accessible to all European citizens.

2005

eEurope

 

E-Inclusion was one of the key priorities of the eEurope action plan

.

2005

European Commission

EC lunched its i2010 strategy; the key objective was promoting an inclusive

European information society

2006

European Commission

Member States should coordinate their policies for combating poverty and social

exclusion. Their National Action Plans should set out concrete steps to improve

access to ICT and the opportunities new technologies can provide

2007

European Commission

The European Commission launched its i2010 initiative to raise political awareness

on e-Inclusion, encourage replication of e-Inclusion success stories throughout the

EU, and pave the way for future actions

2010

European Commission

EC lunched a new Europe 2020 strategy with the baseline, “A strategy for smart,

sustainable and inclusive growth, focusing on developing an economy based on

knowledge and innovation and promoting a more resource-efficient, greener, and more competitive economy”

Slide26

Theory of Reasoned Action

Theories Used for Studying Adoption and Inclusion

Technology Acceptance Model

Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology

Diffusion of Innovation

Theory of Planned Behaviour

Motivation Model

Social Cognitive Theory

Slide27

What about e-Participation

Presentation Title

27

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Examples from the Past Engaging the Citizens

E-Participation: The Key to E-Government Success

…?

What Does This Mean

?

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E-Participation: The Key to E-Government Success…

Engaging the Citizens

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Examples from the Past

E-Participation: The Key to E-Government Success…

Graffiti Removed

Wall Repaired

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Examples

from the Past: More Good Practice

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Evaluating E-Government Service Delivery against Adoption

Public AgenciesService Delivery AccessibilityEfficiencyAvailability

CitizensService AdoptionTrustPrivacyConfidence

Transparency

QualityValue Added

CRM

Legal & Regulatory

Slide33

Digital transformation of Public Administration in the UK: Future Directions

Priority areas for European research in Digital

Government

Future Directions – Open Statecraft and Government as a Platform

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Priority Areas for Digital Government Research in Europe

Engaging Citizens in the policy making process

Increase trust through transparency

Collection of feedback to continuously improve governance

Intelligent and optimised use of vast public sector resources including Big Data

Use cooperation platforms, optimisation and visualisation tools

Digital GOV

Participation and Co-Creation

Policy Modelling

Governance

Moving Ahead

OPEN GOVERNMENT?

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Connected “Statecraft”

What is

Open

Government and

How do

you realise it?

Connectivity + Governance + Collaboration

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But not as we know it ……

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Statecraft The skilful management of state affairs; but ….. “issues of statecraft require great deliberation”

We are running the 21st Century using 20th Century systems on top of 19th Century political structures…..”

John Pollock, contributing editor MIT technology Review

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Control Shift

– seeking to redefine the relationship

between Government, Citizen and Public Services :-

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Localism Welfare Reform Open Public ServicesCivil Service Reform Shared ServicesTransparency and Openness

Efficiency and Reform – using technology to redefine public service infrastructure and delivery via initiatives such as:-

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Reconnected State – establishing a new digital relationship between Government and the Citizen comprising:-

Digital by Default (Gov.UK) Exemplar ServicesAssisted DigitalIdentity Assurance Digital Inclusion HMG Technology Code of Practice

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Emerging Opportunities -

Data Science

… is a critical tool in helping to manage the disruption and complexity.

 

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Emerging Opportunities (UK) - Government as a Platform (GAAP) potentially harnessing the common building blocks of software, hardware and processes developed by GDS and off-the-shelf solutions

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Emerging Opportunities - Open Government providing new opportunities for engagement, co-design, participation and policy making

https://

www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZzPU6Pdw05s#t=11

Slide44

Government as a Platform

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Slide45

DIRECT.GOV: The UK Government Platform

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Percentages of visits to GOV.UK from computer,

mobile and tablet

Since 1 January 2014,  63% of visits to GOV.UK have come from a computer, 23% from a mobile and 14% from a tablet. In January 2013 it was 77% computer, 15% mobile and 9% tablet.

https

://

www.gov.uk/performance/site-activity

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Warnings Moving Ahead

Communications glitches mar voter registration changesThe LeaderPublished: Monday, August 4, 2014 - 06:38 GMT

Millions of voters are missing: It’s another #GovtDigiShamblesBy: The Register

UK.gov crackpots: Let's build vapourware-based sharing economy CITIESThe Register

Online farm payment system abandoned after 'performance problems‘BBC News

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Connectivity –

the map of the digital nation shows the

complexity

and the gap that has to be bridged.

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Governance

– a variety of approaches are emerging.

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“Open Statecraft” that recognises the inter-play between Governance, Connectivity and Collaboration

State house > Round house

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Collaboration by Default - “State-crafters” have to look at developing new conceptual frameworks for supporting collaborative working

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Focusing on Public Value

seeking to expand civic and public value to support the delivery of common good

outcomes

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Open Policy Making - modelling and encouraging the wider public participation in decision making and open policy design.

Co-production

of public services means the public sector and citizens making better use of each other’s assets and resources to achieve better outcomes and improved efficiency

Civil Participation

in

today’s internet-enabled networked society … we clearly see that the number of channels, the quantity of information and, ultimately, the power balance between government & citizens has changed significantly..

Slide53

Vishanth WeerakkodyProfessor of Digital Government BRUNEL UNIVERSITY, UKvishanth.weerakkody@brunel.ac.uk

CEES

LEARNER


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