Identifying Mechanical Systems and Improving Duct Systems PowerPoint Presentation, PPT - DocSlides

Identifying Mechanical Systems and Improving Duct Systems PowerPoint Presentation, PPT - DocSlides

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WEATHERIZATION INSTALLER/TECHNICIAN FUNDAMENTALS. WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM . – July 2012. Learning Objectives. By attending this session, participants will be able to:. ID: 475735

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Slide1

Identifying Mechanical Systems and Improving Duct Systems

WEATHERIZATION INSTALLER/TECHNICIAN FUNDAMENTALS

WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM

– July 2012

Slide2

Learning Objectives

By attending this session, participants will be able to:

Identify common mechanical systems, including combustion appliances and cooling systems.

Discuss clearance to combustibles requirements for various vent pipe types.

Identify various electrical, plumbing, and safety components of mechanical systems.

Illustrate proper combustion vent system exhaust system installation.

Slide3

Learning Objectives

By attending this session, participants will be able to:

Explain how a home’s forced air distribution system works.

Describe mobile home duct configurations.

Identify and diagnose duct leakage problems.

Fix leaky ducts using correct materials and techniques.

Make other duct system improvements.

Slide4

C

ombustion, Distribution & Venting

Return Air

Main Burner

Supply Air

Vent

Combustion Gases

Dilution Air

Heat Exchanger

Gas

Valve

Combustion Air

Graphic developed for the US DOE WAP Standardized Curricula

Slide5

Clearance to Combustibles

Oil and Wood Gas Single wall 18”Single Wall 6”Double Wall Super Six, Dura Vent 6”Double WallB-Vent or B-W Vent 1”Manufactured Chimney 2” or per Manufacturer Instructions

Photo Courtesy of NRCERT

Slide6

Unvented Space Heaters

Unvented space heaters release all of their combustion byproducts into the home. In addition to carbon dioxide and water vapor, compounds of carbon monoxide, excess air, and sulfur dioxide will be present.

Photos Courtesy of NRCERT

Slide7

Furnaces

Furnaces heat air

Photo

courtesy of PA Weatherization Training Center

Open ended duct

Single wall flue for oil

heat

Slide8

Atmospheric Furnace

Furnace Test Locations #1

80+ Induced Draft Furnace

Figures courtesy of Corporation for Ohio Appalachian Development (COAD)

Draft

CO

CO

& Draft

Slide9

90+ Condensing Furnace

Furnace Test

Locations #2

Floor Furnace

Figures courtesy of COAD

Draft

CO

CO

& Draft

Slide10

Furnace Test Locations #3

Fuel Oil Furnace

Barometric Damper

Figure courtesy of COAD

Draft

CO

Photo courtesy of NRCERT

Slide11

Non-retention head

burner

Typically 1,725 RPM Should be replaced

Retention head burnerTypically 3,450 RPM10% more efficient

Source: R. Karg

Oil Burner Components #1

Fuel filter

Overheat shutoff fuel valve

Cutaway blast tube

Burner air adjustment

Retention head

Source: R. Karg

Slide12

Source: Heating with Oil, Natural Resources Canada, 1998.

Oil Burner Components #2

Slide13

Oil Burner Components

#3

Electrode springs

(thousands of volts)

Open transformer

Burner fan

Electrodes for burner ignition

Oil line to nozzle

Inside the burner blast tube

Cad cell

Source: R. Karg

Source: R. Karg

Slide14

Oil-Fired Boiler

Source: Natural Resources Canada,

www.nrcan.gc.ca

Boilers

heat water

Slide15

Natural Draft Boiler and Water Heater

Source: R. Karg

Slide16

Forced Draft Boiler

Forced

Draft UnitThis boiler has a high staticpressure burner.It vents through the wall andits combustion supply air isvented directly to the burnerfrom the outdoors.The burner has a special coverthat allows the outdoor air toflow directly to the burner.

Photo courtesy of R. Karg

Slide17

Chimney and Vent Connectors

Chimney

Combustion gases mixed with room air

Vent

Gas heating appliance

Draft hood

Water heater

Draft diverter

Dilution air

Graphic developed for the US DOE WAP Standardized Curricula

Slide18

A typical mobile home downflow distribution system

Forced Air System Operation #1

Graphic developed for the US DOE WAP Standardized Curricula

Slide19

Forced Air System Operation #2

Furnace

Duct

Vents

Return Air

Graphic developed for the US DOE WAP Standardized Curricula

Slide20

Duct Components

Fabricated Ducts

Photo courtesy of PA WTC

Furnace plenum

Main duct run

Slide21

Duct Location

Crosswise Floor Joist System

Lengthwise Floor Joist System

Images courtesy

of PA WTC

Slide22

Problems and Opportunities

Photos courtesy of PA WTC

New factory installation includes duct tape

Failed duct tape

Slide23

Visual Checks #1

Photos courtesy of PA WTC

Duct registers are common leakage

sites.

Slide24

Desperate times call for desperate measures…

…when the crawl space is the warmest room of the house!

Photos courtesy of PA WTC

Visual Checks #2

Slide25

Visual Checks #3

Photos courtesy of PA WTC

Large holes

Branch duct leakage

Slide26

Visual Checks #4

No heat?

No wonder!

Smashed boot

Photo courtesy of PA WTC

Main duct

Bottom of the heat exchanger

Slide27

The flashlight and mirror trick

Visual Checks #5

Is that a squeegee down there?

Photos courtesy of the US Department of Energy

Slide28

Furnace Connection

Duct

Termination

Crossover Duct

Branch Duct

Register Boot

TRUNK DUCT

Visual Checks #6

Typical Air Leakage Locations

Graphic developed for the US DOE WAP Standardized Curricula

Slide29

Depressurize the home to 50

pascals.

Pressure pan each register location.Record pressure differences.Repair ducts and retest.

Pressure Pan Testing

The goal is to reduce pressure pan readings at each register location to less than 1 pascal.

Remember this number

Photo Source: US Department of Energy

Slide30

Duct repair and sealing techniques

Inspect ducts and boots.Repair or replace ducts and boots. Clean ducts.Seal with mastic and fiberglass mesh tape.Seal ends of trunk line.Repair and seal furnace base.

Duct inspection and

modification tools

Repairing & Sealing Ducts #1

Photo courtesy of the US Department of Energy

Slide31

Inspect for blockage and

loose seams.

Check the flanges and inspect for

damage.

Repairing & Sealing Ducts #2

Photos courtesy of the US Department of Energy

Slide32

Make sure to clean ducts before sealing.

Repairing & Sealing Ducts #3

Photo courtesy of the US Department of Energy

Slide33

Repairing & Sealing Ducts #4

Repair or replace the

boot.

Photo courtesy of the US Department of Energy

Slide34

Aluminum coil stock and boot fabrication

Photo courtesy of PA WTC

Repairing & Sealing Ducts – Materials #1

Photo courtesy of the US Department of Energy

Slide35

Butyl-backed tape

Repairing & Sealing Ducts – Materials #2

Photo courtesy of PA WTC

Image Source: http://www.hardcast.com/PRODUCTS/pr_detail.asp?pid=3

Slide36

Repairing & Sealing Ducts – Materials #3

Mastic sealant

Photo courtesy of the US Department of Energy

Image Source: http://www.rcdmastics.com/pd6.asp

Slide37

Use fiberglass mesh tape to span gaps larger than ¼

inch.

Latex gloves are often your mastic

brush.

Sealing with Mastic #1

Photos courtesy of the US Department of Energy

Slide38

Seal the end of the trunk line by stuffing backer material into the duct past the last register and seal with mastic.

Use screws to hold carpet up until mastic dries.

Sealing with Mastic #2

Photos courtesy of the US Department of Energy

Slide39

Seal the duct,

then patch the belly board.

Mechanically fasten and seal with butyl-backed aluminum tape or mastic.

Repairing and Sealing Ducts #1

Photo courtesy of PA WTC

Photo courtesy of WV GOEO

Slide40

Repairing and Sealing Ducts #2

Re-attach disconnected

ductwork

Photo courtesy of PA WTC

Slide41

Concentrate on the following locations:RisersEndsBranch ductsFurnace plenumYou may need to cut the rodent barrier to access some leaks.Never use duct tape.Mechanically fasten components where necessary.

Repairing and Sealing Ducts - Review

Slide42

Results!

Post Pressure Pan Testing

Photos courtesy of the US Department of Energy

Slide43

Pressure Balancing the System

Measure room pressure imbalances

Photo courtesy of PA WTC

Room pressure imbalances over

4 pascals should be remedied by adding supply or return air,

then retesting.

Make sure that doors to interior

rooms are sufficiently undercut to allow air to return to the furnace.

Slide44

Replace damaged registersRemove obstructionsBalance the system

Other Duct System Improvements

Photos courtesy of PA WTC

Slide45

Venting Systems should:Carry all combustion byproducts to outdoors.Establish draft quickly.Be properly sized with minimal restrictions.Have long durability (corrosion resistance).Protect surrounding materials from overheating.Have adequate make up air.

Venting Systems

Slide46

Chimneys and Vents

Photo

courtesy of PA Weatherization Training Center

From hot water tank

Chimney

Single wall vent

From furnace

Slide47

Masonry chimneysType B-vents – double wall, roundType BW-vents – double wall, ovalType L-vents – more heat, corrosion resistantSingle wall metal – interior onlyPlastic pipe vents – low temperature condensing furnaces

Vent Types

Photo courtesy of NRCERT

Masonry Chimney and B-Vent

Slide48

Vent gas temperatureHeat loss from the ventHeight of the venting systemCapacity of the venting systemRestrictions in the venting systemAmbient temperatureNegative pressure in the combustion appliance zone (CAZ)

Factors That Affect Vent Operation

See a problem here?

Photo courtesy of NRCERT

Slide49

Chimney Specifications

Masonry chimney is too

short

Photo Courtesy of PA Weatherization Training Center

Slide50

Check for:Connections, obstructionsHolesSound linerSlope of horizontal runsExtend 3’ above roof penetrationAppropriate type and size for the applianceProper diameter

Chimneys and Vents #1

Slide51

Chimneys and Vents #2

Chimneys and vents must not be blocked and must have no holes in the chimney or vent.

Missing cleanout

Blocked chimney

Photos Courtesy of PA Weatherization Training Center

Slide52

Hole in Vent Connector

Improper Slope

Chimneys and Vents #3

Hole in vent

connector

Photos Courtesy of PA Weatherization Training Center

Improper

slope

Slide53

No vent connector

Reduced vent connector out of compliance with

code

Chimneys and Vents #4

Reduced vent

connector

Photos Courtesy of

PA Weatherization Training Center

No vent

connector

Slide54

Water Heaters

Burn marks above the burner compartment are evidence

of flame roll out.

Spillage of flue gases or insufficient draft is often a result of an improper installation such as this.

Photo courtesy

of PA Weatherization Training Center

Photo courtesy

of NRCERT

Slide55

Testing Water Heaters #1

Atmospheric

Hot Water Tank

Test for draft above the

draft diverter.

Figure courtesy of COAD

Test for CO on both sides of the baffle.

Photo courtesy of NRCERT

Slide56

Test for CO directly into the breech of the unit on both sides of the baffle that runs up through the center of the tank.

On start up, time the amount of spillage. Then test draft above the draft diverter. Spillage should not exceed

one

minute.

Testing Water Heaters #2

Photos courtesy of NRCERT

Draft diverter

Slide57

Photos courtesy of NRCERT

Chimney Liner

Slide58

Condenser

Air Handler

Air Conditioning Units

Packaged

Heat PumpCentral SystemOften mounted on roof or concrete slab outdoorsIncludes Room A/C units (most common in low-income homes)

Air Conditioning Systems

Split SystemCondenser outdoorsA/C coil indoors, often in furnace, heat pump, or supply duct

Mini-split ductless systems place the condenser outdoors, air handler indoors.

* All A/C need clean filters and coils to allow good air flow and efficient heat transfer.

Slide59

Outdoor

Cleaning frequency depends on levels of dust and pollen in areaHigh levels: Clean annuallyLow levels: Every 3 yearsIndoorShould be protected by well-fitting clean filterKeeps blower and coils cleanEasier to replace or clean filters than blowers or coils

Indoor and Outdoor Coils

Outdoor coils

Indoor coils

Adapted from image on www.home.howstuffworks.com

Slide60

Parts of Room A/C

housing

outdoor coil

compressor

condensate drain

indoor coil

controls

filter

removable grill

Photo courtesy of

Energy Out West Weatherization Field Guide. Copyright Saturn 2009 www.srmi.biz

Slide61

Central A/C Components

The outdoor condenser and coils dissipate collected heat to the outdoor air. In dusty climates, the coils should be cleaned annually to maintain efficient performance.

Adapted from image on www.home.howstuffworks.com

Slide62

Photo courtesy of The U.S. Department of Energy

Covering the unit during periods

of disuse prevents clogging with leaves and other debris.

Slide63

Furnaces heat air and use ducted distribution systems.Boilers heat water and transport heat through the living space through pipes connected to radiators.Cooling systems can be packaged or split systems. If the condenser and coils are in separate locations, it is a split system.Most ducts are very prone to leakage.Diagnosing and repairing duct leakage is the single, most cost-effective measure you can apply to many mobile homes.Effective duct sealing is possible through the use of innovative duct sealing materials.Other duct improvement measures, such as cleaning, removing obstructions, and system balancing can improve comfort and lower fuel bills.

Summary


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